Difference Between Specific Gravity And Density Pdf

difference between specific gravity and density pdf

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Genetics of Wood Production pp Cite as. A general definition of specific gravity and wood density was given in Chapter 1, but it will be of value to repeat a summary of it here.

What Is the Difference Between Density and Specific Gravity?

Specific gravity , also called relative density , ratio of the density of a substance to that of a standard substance. Gases are commonly compared with dry air , which has a density of 1. For example, liquid mercury has a density of The gas carbon dioxide , which has a density of 1.

Because it is the ratio of two quantities that have the same dimensions mass per unit volume , specific gravity has no dimension. Buoyancy the ability of an object to float in water or air is intimately related to specific gravity. If a substance has specific gravity less than that of a fluid , it will float on that fluid: helium -filled balloons will rise in air, oil will form a slick on water, and lead will float on mercury.

The specific gravity of a substance is characteristic; it is the same for different samples of a substance if pure, the same in composition , and free from cavities or inclusions and is used to help identify unknown substances. Specific gravity has many other applications: gemologists use it to distinguish similar gems ; chemists, to check on the progress of reactions and the concentration of solutions; and auto mechanics, to test battery fluid and antifreeze.

Specific gravity is the basis of methods used throughout history to concentrate ores. Panning, jigging, shaking, spiral separation, and heavy-medium separation are among the methods that depend on differences in specific gravity to obtain concentrated ore. Specific gravity is highest in rocks rich in iron , magnesium oxide , and the heavy metals and lowest in those rich in alkalies , silica , and water. The ease with which specific gravity can be precisely determined leads to its widespread use in chemical science and technology; for example, determination of the specific gravity is part of the routine characterization of a new liquid compound.

The specific gravity of most organic compounds containing only carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen is less than one. Among the devices used to measure specific gravity are the Westphal balance, the pycnometer , and the hydrometer.

Specific gravity Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

Hydrometer used to measure the specific gravity of wine. Read More on This Topic. Specific gravity G is defined as the ratio between the weight of a substance and the weight of an equal volume of water Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Thus a mineral with a specific gravity of 2 weighs twice as much as the….

Specific gravity is a related quantity that is defined as the ratio of the density of the analyte to the density of water at a specified temperature. The procedure used to measure specific gravity often employs an instrument called a hydrometer, which…. History at your fingertips.

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The Importance of Wood Density (Specific Gravity) and Its Component Parts

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Difference Between Density and Specific Gravity

The density of a substance measures how much mass it has in a given volume. The formula for density is mass divided by volume:. Specific gravity is a ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance, usually water. Since the density of water is one gram per cubic centimeter, you calculate specific gravity by dividing the density of a substance by one gram per cubic centimeter. Since a number divided by one is itself, the specific gravity of a substance is the density absent the units of measure.

Specific gravity , also called relative density , ratio of the density of a substance to that of a standard substance. Gases are commonly compared with dry air , which has a density of 1. For example, liquid mercury has a density of The gas carbon dioxide , which has a density of 1. Because it is the ratio of two quantities that have the same dimensions mass per unit volume , specific gravity has no dimension.

Specific gravity

The Importance of Wood Density (Specific Gravity) and Its Component Parts

The specific weight , also known as the unit weight , is the weight per unit volume of a material. The terms specific gravity , and less often specific weight , are also used for relative density. Unlike density, specific weight is not a fixed property of a material. It depends on the value of the gravitational acceleration , which varies with location. Pressure may also affect values, depending upon the bulk modulus of the material, but generally, at moderate pressures, has a less significant effect than the other factors. In fluid mechanics , specific weight represents the force exerted by gravity on a unit volume of a fluid.

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Both density and specific gravity describe mass and may be used to compare different substances. They are not, however, identical measures. Specific gravity is an expression of density in relation to the density of a standard or reference usually water. Also, density is expressed in units weight relative to size while specific gravity is a pure number or dimensionless. Density is a property of matter and can be defined as the ratio of mass to a unit volume of matter. It's typically expressed in units of grams per cubic centimeter, kilograms per cubic meter, or pounds per cubic inch.

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What is the difference between density and specific gravity?

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William C.

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Density and specific gravity are very commonly used.

Audrey J.

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