File Name: molecular evolution of foxp2 a gene involved in speech and language .zip
Much of our current knowledge regarding the association of FOXP2 with speech and language development comes from singleton and small family studies where a small number of rare variants have been identified. However, neither genome-wide nor gene-specific studies have provided evidence that common polymorphisms in the gene contribute to individual differences in language development in the general population. One explanation for this inconsistency is that previous studies have been limited to relatively small samples of individuals with low language abilities, using low density gene coverage.
- Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language
- The FOXP2-Driven Network in Developmental Disorders and Neurodegeneration
- Genomics of speech and language disorders
Metrics details. Heterozygous disruption of FOXP2 causes a rare form of speech and language impairment. FOXP2 encodes a transcription factor with a forkhead box DNA-binding domain, but little is known about the functions of protein regions outside this domain. We performed detailed functional analyses of seven rare FOXP2 variants found in affected cases, including three which have not been previously characterized, testing intracellular localization, transcriptional regulation, dimerization, and interaction with other proteins. To shed further light on molecular functions of FOXP2, we characterized the interaction between this transcription factor and co-repressor proteins of the C-terminal binding protein CTBP family.
Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language
Hot Keywords Rett Syndrome Intellectual disability mitochondrial disease next-generation sequencing language disorders monogenic epilepsies early-onset epilepsy movement disorders autism suicide schizophrenia. Correspondence Address: Dr. E-mail: neuroorl euroespes. Multiple factors involve speech and language. Investigating animal models, mainly through songbirds, has allowed a better understanding of the verbal communication process. Speech disorders, such as childhood apraxia of speech, dysarthria or stuttering, along with language disorders, like aphasia, dyslexia or developmental language disorder are the main examples.
FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection a change in selective pressure at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination.
Humans possess a communication system based on spoken and written language. Other animals can learn vocalization by imitation, but this is not equivalent to human language. Many genes were described to be implicated in language impairment LI and developmental dyslexia DD , but their evolutionary history has not been thoroughly analyzed. Herein we analyzed the evolution of ten genes involved in DD and LI. Results show that the evolutionary history of LI genes for mammals and aves was comparable in vocal-learner species and non-learners.
The FOXP2-Driven Network in Developmental Disorders and Neurodegeneration
The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. Ontology analysis of the new and reproduced targets, along with their interactors in a network, revealed an enrichment of terms relating to cellular signaling and communication, metabolism and catabolism, cellular migration and differentiation, and expression regulation. Links to deafness and dyslexia were detected, too. Such relations existed for single proteins e.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after The current usage metrics is available hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days. Open Access. Issue Med Sci Paris. A new hominid from the upper Miocene of Chad. Central Africa. Nature ; —
observed in a small family affected with speech and language impairment, but found in exon 7 of the FOXP2 gene and are a threonine-to-asparagine and an.
Genomics of speech and language disorders
This protein is a transcription factor, which means that it controls the activity of other genes. It attaches binds to the DNA of these genes through a region known as a forkhead domain. Researchers suspect that the forkhead box P2 protein may regulate hundreds of genes, although only some of its targets have been identified. The forkhead box P2 protein is active in several tissues, including the brain, both before and after birth. Studies suggest that it plays important roles in brain development, including the growth of nerve cells neurons and the transmission of signals between them.
В комнате творилось нечто невообразимое. Техники обнимали друг друга, подбрасывая вверх длинные полосы распечаток. Бринкерхофф обнимал Мидж. Соши заливалась слезами.
- Когда мистер Беккер найдет ключ, он будет вознагражден сполна. ГЛАВА 22 Дэвид Беккер быстро подошел к койке и посмотрел на спящего старика. Правое запястье в гипсе.
Беккер увидел в зеркале заднего вида разъяренное лицо, но словно оцепенел. Раздраженный водитель резко нажал на педаль тормоза, и Беккер почувствовал, как перемещается куда-то вес его тела. Он попробовал плюхнуться на заднее сиденье, но промахнулся. Тело его сначала оказалось в воздухе, а потом - на жестком полу.
Ключ… - Ее передернуло.