File Name: list of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes .zip
- 13.6: Tumor Suppressor Genes
- Tumour Suppressor Genes with Oncogenic Roles in Lung Cancer
- Double agents: genes with both oncogenic and tumor-suppressor functions
More than 30 genes are classified as tumor suppressors. The normal functions of these genes include repair of DNA, induction of programmed cell death apoptosis and prevention of abnormal cell division. In contrast to proto-oncogenes, in tumor suppressors it is loss-of-function mutations that contribute to the progression of cancer. This means that tumor suppressor mutations tend to be recessive, and thus both alleles must be mutated in order to allow abnormal growth to proceed.
13.6: Tumor Suppressor Genes
Tumour Suppressor Genes with Oncogenic Roles in Lung Cancer
Rock, Daiana D. Becker-Santos, Adam P. Sage, Erin A. Marshall and Wan L. Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.
The use of genetically engineered mouse models harboring deletions or mutations in these genes has provided insight into how such alterations drive tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis, and how they influence responses to anticancer agents. Beyond these well-characterized alterations, there has been a recent explosion in new information regarding the molecular pathogenesis of breast cancer, and therefore a need to define the functional roles of newly described potential breast cancer genes. For example, whole-genome sequencing has identified a large number of genes with recurrent sequence alterations in human breast cancer specimens Wood et al. Moreover, gene copy number analyses have identified multiple regions of chromosomal gain or loss Chin et al. Despite, this new information about cancer-associated molecular alterations, the full characterization of their impact on breast cancer biology in vivo remains incomplete. The generation of additional mouse models with engineered mutations or transgenic expression of new candidate genes will provide important information validating their role in cancer and elucidating their specific biological activities.
Double agents: genes with both oncogenic and tumor-suppressor functions
Metrics details. Defective tumor suppressor genes TSGs and hyperactive oncogenes OCGs heavily contribute to cell proliferation and apoptosis during cancer development through genetic variations such as somatic mutations and deletions. Moreover, they usually do not perform their cellular functions individually but rather execute jointly.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. Most normal cells will undergo programmed form of rapid cell death apoptosis when critical functions are altered and malfunctioning. Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead. If, through mutation, normal genes promoting cellular growth are up-regulated gain-of-function mutation , they will predispose the cell to cancer; thus, they are termed "oncogenes".
The functional role of oncogenes in human lung carcinogenesis has been investigated by transfer of activated oncogenes into normal cells or an immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Transfection of v-Ha-ras, Ki-ras, or the combination of myc and raf into BEAS-2B cells produced tumorigenic cell lines, while transfection of raf or myc alone produced nontumorigenic cell lines. In addition to studying the pathogenic role of oncogenes, we are attempting to define negative growth-regulating genes that have tumor-suppressive effects for human lung carcinomas. Our strategy to identify tumor-suppressor genes involves loss of heterozygosity studies, monochromosome-cell fusion, and cell-cell fusion studies. Loss of heterozygosity studies have revealed consistent allelic DNA sequence deletions on chromosome 17p in squamous cell carcinomas, while large cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas retained this locus.
Она закрыла лицо руками. Дэвид не мог прийти в. - Но, Сьюзан… я думал… - Он взял ее за дрожащие плечи и повернул к. И тогда он увидел, что Сьюзан вовсе не плакала. - Я не выйду за тебя замуж! - Она расхохоталась и стукнула его подушкой.
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