File Name: hebrew names and meanings .zip
- Hebrew Baby Names
- Hebrew Names for Girls and Their Meanings
- The Transformation of Biblical Proper Names
Hebrew Baby Names
IThe Late Medieval Bible ushered in many changes to the appearance and use of biblical manuscripts. A transformation in layout, di fusion, reading patterns and textual divisions was accompanied by the creation of the rst mass-produced single-volume Bible, or pandect.
While pandects had existed since the early Middle Ages, they were large and cumbersome books, few and far between. From ca. This had an impact on the way Bibles were read and consulted. For the rst time one could take a full Bible on the road without the need of a carriage or a stout mule, and pandects proliferated outside large monastic libraries which had once been their prime abode.
Beyond portability, price and storage, single-volume Bibles ushered in another change. Biblical manuscripts became self-su cient books, texts that could contain their own interpretation. No longer consulted solely in wealthy libraries or read nearby , Bibles often incorporated a wide variety of aids and addenda, such as calendars and tables of lections, biblical summaries and devotional treatises, to facilitate prayer, preaching and study.
Bound in with the biblical text, these addenda provided very speci c ways of understanding it. Guiding readers through the long, complex and sometimes foreign text of the Bible, none was as popular as the Interpretations of Hebrew Names Interpretationes nominum Hebraeorum, hereafter IHN , a biblical glossary that was a xed to the majority of Late Medieval Bibles, and is extant in hundreds of manuscripts.
This paper will explore the evolution and nature of this important aid to identify a link between the glossary and a new form of preaching that came into the limelight at the end This essay builds upon the initial exploration of the Interpretations of Hebrew Names in my PhD dissertation, revised and published as Approaching the Bible in Medieval England Manchester, Research and publication were supported by a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship.
I wish to thank Laura Light and Giovanna Murano for their assistance. Paul de Lagarde, ed. Hieronymi Presbyteri Opera. Pars I, Opera Exegetica. For example, the entry for Galaad in Genesis adds: "de hoc in libris hebraicarum quaestionum plenius diximus" "about which we have said much in the books of Hebrew Questions ".
That biblical names carry meaning is far from a medieval innovation. Their signi cance can be traced to the Bible itself. There, de nitions are important means of narrative development or of allegorical explication. The centrality of name-exegesis is most evident in the way signi cant events were marked by re-naming places and personae: Abram became Abraham to commemorate his covenant with the Lord Gn With the rise of allegorical exegesis, and especially as Christian communities engaged in linking seemingly unrelated Old and New Testament passages, biblical names grew in importance.
When Jerome translated the Bible into Latin, he was not oblivious to the importance of names. He expanded this glossary beyond the Onomasticon's toponyms to include personal names, which became the majority of its entries. The glossary was meant to function in tandem with other works, and includes references to works by Jerome, primarily his Hebrew Questions. It follows the Bible from Genesis to Revelations, at times repeating names in di ferent locations according to their reappearance in di ferent places within the biblical narrative e.
Aser in both Genesis and Exodus. Internal references are made within the glossary and letters are sometimes explicitly omitted altogether to avoid repetition e. I and L do not appear in Deuteronomy. Each entry in Jerome's glossary provides a laconic de nition, often in accordance with the biblical interpretation itself see table 1.
Their length varies from a single word to a short paragraph the latter only most infrequently , determined not by the importance of the biblical character but rather by Hebrew etymology. Jerome's interest in linguistics and his preoccupation with the challenges of translation are evident throughout the work. The glossary digresses to discuss the problem of writing Hebrew in Latin giving a reason for providing two alternatives for a single word, e.
O r as A r in Genesis , the similarity between Hebrew and Greek phonetics introducing the letter Ch , and distinctions between Hebrew and Aramaic e. Dison in Genesis. This led Jerome to integrate short indications of language and origin e. Zachaeus in Matthew [recte Lk Jerome's digressions into Hebrew grammar and phonetics highlighted the distance between the Vulgate and the Hebrew Bible.
The once familiar Hebrew words, whose etymologies had been evident for readers and listeners, were now lost in the gap between transliterated Hebrew and Latin de nition. The biblical impetus of connecting well-known place and personal names to mythical narratives was now presented to an audience who knew neither place nor language.
Some de nitions made use of this gap, their brevity not masking the tenets of Christian thought underpinning Jerome's analysis. Eve was thus de ned as disaster, woe or life "Eva calamitas, aut vae vel vita" , succinctly encompassing the Christian reading of the Garden of Eden and departing from the original etymology as Mother of all Living Gn 2.
It circulated independently, or formed part of monastic miscellanies; truncated and modied, it was added to early medieval Gospel Books to provide name exegesis for their speci c books. In the twelfth century, the rise of urban schools BSB,Clm. Felicity O'Mahony Aldershot, , pp. Giovanna Murano "Chi ha scritto le Interpretationes hebraicorum nominum? Louis-Jacques Bataillon et al.
Some glossaries were based on other works, such as a revision of Isidore's Etymologies incipit "Adam guram Christi gestavit" , with its explicit allegorical understanding of Scripture. Most works, however, were the result of the enhancement, restructuring and expansion of Jerome's Liber interpretationis. They survive nowadays in hundreds of manuscripts, primarily bound with Late Medieval Bibles, and became its most popular addenda.
Despite its medieval popularity, the IHN has received little scholarly attention, and none of the glossaries is available in a modern scholarly edition. Nevertheless, three important articles have charted its evolution and nature. He saw a gradual evolution from the Adam through Aaron to Aaz as evidence of Hebrew knowledge, and its appeal as intrinsically linked to twelfth-and thirteenth-century exegesis.
Gilbert Dahan rea rmed the centrality of exegesis to the compilation and use of the glossary, but questioned its date, methodology and authorship. The scope of the entries demonstrates how the author of the Adam closely followed Jerome, while entries in the Aaron and Aaz glossaries were added based on Latin synonyms and similar Hebrew words.
Importantly, Dahan demonstrated that the new entries were not based on independent knowledge of Hebrew. Recently, the authorship of the di ferent glossaries was further explored by Giovanna Murano.
Carefully tracing the subcategories of each rendering, Murano was able to substantiate Dahan's claim for diverse authorship and earlier date -tracing the earliest witness of the Aaron version to Murano also examined the common attribution to Langton through the appearance of slightly modi ed entries of the Aaz glossary in his exegetical works.
The evolution of the glossary is evident in changes to the content of the entries, as well as to their organization. In tandem with the rise in alphabetical aids and a shift towards the systemisation of knowledge, Jerome's sequence was modi ed. Jerome's original work follows individual books of the Bible, each sub-divided alphabetically and then chronologically i. I thank Giovanna Murano for supplying me with an early copy of her article.
Rouse and Rouse, "Statim invenire", pp. The number of entries is conjectural as within each rendering there is much variation, a complex manuscript tradition, the expansion of single entries into multiple items and vice-versa. The only note on the link between the glossary's entries and the Vulgate was made in passing by d'Esneval "Le perfectionnement", p.
The change in sequence should not be taken for granted. As demonstrated by Mary Carruthers, the sequence of Jerome's original work was in tune with mnemonic techniques, and the combination of narrative and alphabetical sequences was of particular use for readers. The move towards a purely alphabetical sequence should, however, be seen against the background of the rise of the Late Medieval Bible.
As biblical glossaries, and primarily the Aaz rendering, were a xed to pandects, the Liber interpretationis and earlier versions became obsolete. A purely alphabetical sequence be tted a single-volume Bible perfectly, and the link between Bible and glossary may explain the reception of the IHN in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, when the Aaz version was the most popular, the Aaron version appeared infrequently possibly due to the nature of its entries, explored below , and the earlier version of Adam was a rarity.
The range and nature of the glossaries likewise evolved over time. There is a clear rise in the scope and breadth of the IHN: Jerome's Liber interpretationis has 3, entries, the Adam rendering ca. It came to encompass biblical gures of little signi cance, as well as variants of Hebrew words. Growth, however, does not necessarily indicate accurate scholarship. The link between many of these entries and the biblical text cannot be taken for granted. Strikingly and little noticed by scholars of the IHN , a large number of the glossary's entries, especially in the Aaz rendering, do not appear in the biblical text.
Some of the words appear in modi ed spelling, rendering their identi cation most di cult for a medieval reader with little knowledge of Hebrew. This examination was based on a comparison between the entries and the biblical text they accompany in Cambridge, CCC, MS , but more work is needed before exact percentage can be ascertained.
Even the word Aaz itself, the rst entry of the glossary, is written as Ahaz in the Vulgate and has its own entry in the glossary under Ahaz ; the de nition of Aaz is based on Jerome's Liber interpretationis for the Fourth Book of Kings and for Matthew , in which it refers to a king of Judah by the name of Achaz who likewise has its own entry in the Aaz glossary "querentes vel apprehendens sive conversus visioni aut apprehendens fortitudinem".
This corroborates Dahan's assertion that a lack of independent Hebrew knowledge underpinned the compilation of later glossaries. It is especially true for the creation of the Aaz glossary, as the entries that were added to enlarge the Aaron glossary are typically the ones lacking in the biblical text. This puts the nature and use of the glossary in question.
An uneasy link between biblical glossary and biblical text is evident in the nature of the entries themselves, which di fers considerably between the various renderings, as can be seen from a comparison of several entries across sample glossaries table 1. On the integration of the chapter division see Paul Saenger's essay in this volume. See above, n. For some entries, such a link could still be made using biblical concordances.
The Adam version, on the other hand, is the closest to the modern reckoning of a biblical aid. In it the biblical etymology is preceded by contextualization of the person or the place within the biblical narrative: people are presented according to their lineage and locations are linked with the biblical narrative, both assisting the reader in following the biblical story.
Hebrew Names for Girls and Their Meanings
Subscriber Account active since. We have listed these meanings and origins for the most popular names in the U. Our list alternates between male and female names with the most popular names appearing first. Those with highest number of instances are considered the most popular. Here are the original meanings of these common names, according to Hanks and his coauthors Hardcastle and Hodges. In Britain, James is a royal name associated with the Scottish house of Stewart: James I of Scotland, a patron of the arts and an energetic ruler.
The following is a list of women found in the Hebrew and Christian Bibles. The list appears in alphabetical order. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Women in the Bible. Major positions. Christian egalitarianism Complementarianism.
You will receive a JPG file that you can print. If you also want a PDF, let me know. You chose the perfect name for your baby. Now you can display it in your nursery! These digital downloads are the perfect addition….
Therefore, vered can be used either to mean 'a roseʼor 'Rose',. depending on the context. Modern Hebrew names hardly ever function only.
The Transformation of Biblical Proper Names
Hebrew Bible , also called Hebrew Scriptures, Old Testament, or Tanakh , collection of writings that was first compiled and preserved as the sacred books of the Jewish people. It also constitutes a large portion of the Christian Bible. A brief treatment of the Hebrew Bible follows. For full treatment, see biblical literature. The last 11 books contain poetry , theology , and some additional history.
Mazal Tov! Hebrew names are some of the oldest in existence dating back to the Israelites. Most biblical names we know today take their roots in Hebrew and are making a huge comeback in the U. Currently the Jewish nation counts
For instance, if we are praying for a healing we would use the title Jehovah-Rophe or Jehovah-Rapha,"the Lord God heals". Did you know that our God, the God of the Bible has many different names? Next to Yahweh, this is the most often used word for God in the Hebrew Old Testament, being employed times. Before we dive into these 30 powerful Hebrew names of God, I want to show you a few Bible verses that speak about the blessings we gain from really knowing God.
Table of contents
Трюк? - Теперь уже Стратмор не мог скрыть свое раздражение. - Это вовсе не трюк. Да я вообще слова ему не сказал о деньгах. Я попросил оказать мне личную услугу. И он согласился поехать. - Конечно, согласился. Вы же мой шеф.
Неужели высвободился. Однако тот не подавал никаких признаков жизни. Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу. - Коммандер.
Подавшись назад, он указал на целую очередь людей, выстроившихся в проходе. Беккер посмотрел в другую сторону и увидел, что женщина, сидевшая рядом, уже ушла и весь ряд вплоть до центрального прохода пуст. Не может быть, что служба уже закончилась. Это невозможно.
- Это уму непостижимо.