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- 3.2.9 Classification of Programming Languages
- assembly language book pdf
- Low-level programming language
- machine language pdf
Machine language is the low level programming language. Machine language can only be represented by 0s and 1s. In earlier when we have to create a picture or show data on the screen of the computer then it is very difficult to draw using only binary digits 0s and 1s. For example: To write in the computer system its representation is So it is very difficult to learn.
3.2.9 Classification of Programming Languages
A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture —commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions. Generally, this refers to either machine code or assembly language. Because of the low hence the word abstraction between the language and machine language, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware".
Programs written in low-level languages tend to be relatively non-portable , due to being optimized for a certain type of system architecture. Low-level languages can convert to machine code without a compiler or interpreter — second-generation programming languages use a simpler processor called an assembler — and the resulting code runs directly on the processor.
A program written in a low-level language can be made to run very quickly, with a small memory footprint. An equivalent program in a high-level language can be less efficient and use more memory.
Low-level languages are simple, but considered difficult to use, due to numerous technical details that the programmer must remember. By comparison, a high-level programming language isolates execution semantics of a computer architecture from the specification of the program, which simplifies development.
Machine code is the only language a computer can process directly without a previous transformation. Currently, programmers almost never write programs directly in machine code, because it requires attention to numerous details that a high-level language handles automatically. Furthermore, it requires memorizing or looking up numerical codes for every instruction, and is extremely difficult to modify.
True machine code is a stream of raw, usually binary , data. A programmer coding in "machine code" normally codes instructions and data in a more readable form such as decimal , octal , or hexadecimal which is translated to internal format by a program called a loader or toggled into the computer's memory from a front panel.
Although few programs are written in machine language, programmers often become adept at reading it through working with core dumps or debugging from the front panel. Example: A function in hexadecimal representation of bit x86 machine code to calculate the n th Fibonacci number :.
Second-generation languages provide one abstraction level on top of the machine code. Typically, one machine instruction is represented as one line of assembly code. Assemblers produce object files that can link with other object files or be loaded on their own.
Most assemblers provide macros to generate common sequences of instructions. In this code example, hardware features of the x processor its registers are named and manipulated directly. Note that in this assembly language, there is no concept of returning a value.
The result having been stored in the EAX register, the RET command simply moves code processing to the code location stored on the stack usually the instruction immediately after the one that called this function and it is up to the author of the calling code to know that this function stores its result in EAX and to retrieve it from there. This code is very similar in structure to the assembly language example but there are significant differences in terms of abstraction:.
These abstractions make the C code compilable without modification on any architecture for which a C compiler has been written. The x86 assembly language code is specific to the x86 architecture. One method for this is Inline assembly , in which assembly code is embedded in a high-level language that supports this feature. Some of these languages also allow architecture-dependent compiler optimization directives to adjust the way a compiler uses the target processor architecture.
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assembly language book pdf
In this article, we will discuss in detail about assembly language vs machine language. Machine language is a language that has a binary form. It can be directly executed by a computer. The programming language is a set of instructions, in order to make a computer understand to perform a specific task or create an algorithm. Watch our Demo Courses and Videos. All programming language has some primitive building blocks which are known as syntax.
Home About My account Contact Us. Machine Language cannot be changes easily and it does not support modification. Therefore, those programs should be converted to computer understandable machine language. Machine Language varies from platform. Assembly language follows a syntax similar to the English language. Assembly language is a human-readable representation for machine language.
How does a processor execute these? HLL (High Level Language) programs are machine independent. They are easy to learn, easy to use.
Low-level programming language
It is the only language which a computer understands without using a translation program. A machine language instruction has two parts. The first part is the operation code which tells the computer what function to perform and the second part is the operand which tells the computer where to find or store the data which is to be manipulated. A programmer needs to write numeric codes for the instruction and storage location of data. It is a low level programming language that allows a user to write a program using alphanumeric mnemonic codes, instead of numeric codes for a set of instructions.
machine language pdf
Programming is the act of developing a piece of software. And software contains instructions that tell a computer what to do. Therefore, programming is the process of developing instructions that tell a computer what to do. And you can tell the computer what to do with with a with a programming language. Each programming language was invented for a specific purpose.
We call the language made up of those instructions the machine language. Machine language Assembler 03 45 f8 add eax, anInt 66 03 45 ec add ax, aShort 02 45 e3 add al, aChar 03 c3 add eax, ebx. Computer directly understands a program written in the machine language. The main difference between machine and assembly language is Machine languages are platform-dependent, and their features vary accordingly. Assembly language is an ideal language to program microcontroller based systems.
Differences between Low-level and High-level Languages:. Upload to Fundamentals of 3. Learn It: What are the different levels of Programming Languages? A programming language - Is a formal language, which comprises a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement specific algorithms. Most programming languages consist of instructions for computers. A computer program - Is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer.
A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture —commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions. Generally, this refers to either machine code or assembly language. Because of the low hence the word abstraction between the language and machine language, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware". Programs written in low-level languages tend to be relatively non-portable , due to being optimized for a certain type of system architecture. Low-level languages can convert to machine code without a compiler or interpreter — second-generation programming languages use a simpler processor called an assembler — and the resulting code runs directly on the processor. A program written in a low-level language can be made to run very quickly, with a small memory footprint. An equivalent program in a high-level language can be less efficient and use more memory.
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Ну и. Но тебе там понравится. ГЛАВА 50 Фил Чатрукьян остановился в нескольких ярдах от корпуса ТРАНСТЕКСТА, там, где на полу белыми буквами было выведено: НИЖНИЕ ЭТАЖИ ШИФРОВАЛЬНОГО ОТДЕЛА ВХОД ТОЛЬКО ДЛЯ ЛИЦ СО СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫМ ДОПУСКОМ Чатрукьян отлично знал, что к этим лицам не принадлежит.
Когда она оглянулась, Дэвид Беккер лежал на полу, прижимая ладони к лицу и корчась от нестерпимого жжения в глазах. ГЛАВА 71 Токуген Нуматака закурил уже четвертую сигару и принялся мерить шагами кабинет, потом схватил телефонную трубку и позвонил на коммутатор. - Есть какие-нибудь сведения о номере? - выпалил он, прежде чем телефонистка успела сказать алло. - Пока ничего, сэр. Кажется, придется повозиться дольше, чем ожидалось, - это был звонок с мобильника.