File Name: a brief history of violence and aggression in spectator sports .zip
- Suppression of spectator violence at sports events.
- Violence in sports
- Chapter 2 A Brief History of Violence and Aggression in Spectator Sports
Responses to the Problem of Spectator Violence in Stadiums.
The growing proportion of older fans and their potential economic value have increased the need for an improved understanding of age differences in fan behaviour. Building on socioemotional selectivity theory, the current study examines the impact of age differences on fan hatred as well as on the extent to which fans actually engage in aggressive activities and fans' perceptions of the levels of appropriateness of certain physical and verbal acts of aggression. The study used an online panel-based survey that offered access to a real-world population of sport fans. The participants were fans of professional football soccer. Results from structural equation modelling indicated that older fans reported lower levels of fan hatred, lower self-reported aggression and lower acceptance of physical and verbal aggression.
Suppression of spectator violence at sports events.
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Khairuddin Kholid. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. IntroductionSporting contests have provided mass entertainment throughout history. Ancient Mesoamericans had their ball games, the Greeks had the Olympic Games, and the Romans had many spectator sports such as gladiatorial contests and chariot races.
As pointed out by George Orwell in the mid-twentieth century quote above, present-day versions of these ancient sports provide entertainment for passionate spectators, and they tend to be heavily influenced by financial issues.
However, it is unlikely that Orwell could have foreseen the economic impact that this "heavily-financed activity" would have in the twenty-first century. One commonality among many ancient and modern sports is the existence of violence and aggression in contests.
Compare a modern stock car race with a Roman chariot race: only the technology has changed. In addition, violence and aggression are the hallmarks of the most-popular, modern spectator sports. When Orwell mentions "football" as being one of "the most violently combative sports," he is referring to association football soccer , but he would not be surprised that the NFL is the most popular sport among US sports fans Leahy No doubt, Orwell would argue that the NFL is popular because of the inherent violence in the game see Chap.
Although his point could be debated [consider, for example, the issue of NFL parity and the success of the league Hamlin ], there is little doubt that the aggressive and violent nature of the game is an aspect that attracts fans.
Violence in Modern SportsAncient combat sports live on in modern-day professional wrestling, boxing "prize fighting" , and mixed martial arts MMA. Modern professional wrestling is more a circus than sport, with its mock violence, dramatic staging, and soap-operatic side stories.
Even the most ardent WWE fan would admit that this is theater instead of competition. In contrast, professional prize fighting is seen as a true sport, but demand for boxing entertainment has been on the wane for some time. A comparison of modern boxing and professional wrestling might suggest that, at least in North America, there has been a shift in demand away from "real" violence in sports toward cartoonish depictions of violence.
However, one only has to look at the recent rise in popularity of MMA competitions to see that there has been no such shift. MMA combines the disciplines of wrestling, boxing, jiu-jitsu, and kickboxing.
One of the draws of MMA is that it allows fighters from these different disciplines to meet on a level field. In , when the first MMA matches took place, Senator John McCain of Arizona referred to the sport as "human cock fighting" because of its brutality. Although this statement was extreme and clearly incorrect given that MMA participants were rarely if ever killed by a competitor, it is true that MMA in its original incarnation was fairly brutal. At the time, the rules of the match allowed for anything except for eye gouging and biting, and the fight ended when an opponent was knocked out or by a judge's decision.
In response, the competition was banned from all but three states. After regulating its matches by introducing more than 31 fouls and 8 ways to end a bout, the UFC found its way back into the public spotlight. Ice hockey, the modern cousin of a variety of ancient games played with a ball and a stick, is another modern sport in which violence and aggression plays an important role see Chap. Nonetheless, ice hockey "has been called the only all-human sport in which physical intimidation outside the rules is encouraged as a customary tactic: very nearly a blood sport, in fact" Economist Although calling ice hockey a "blood sport" is a stretch, evidence suggests that violence is an intrinsic part of the game.
Academic research suggests increases in violence tend to increase NHL attendance, so that the league and teams have an incentive to keep violent play a part of the game in order to maximize attendance Jones et al. However, Stewart et al. Thus, NHL teams are forced to make a trade off when considering violent play.
Specifically, violent and aggressive play may increase attendance directly, but it may also decrease attendance indirectly if attendance is positively related to winning. Unfortunately, the violent and aggressive nature of the NHL game sometimes leads to egregious acts of violence by players against their opponents.
He was not reinstated until August NHL Senior Vice President Colin Campbell spoke of Bertuzzi's punishment, but did not comment on changing the rules to prevent this kind of behavior, effectively implying that this type of violence was a part of the game. Chris Simon is another example of an NHL player who took the violent part of the game too far. Simon received a game suspension that covered the end of the regular season and the playoffs, and went into the regular season. Soon after being reinstated, Simon once again got into an on-ice incident, this time with the Pittsburgh Penguins' Jarkko Ruutu.
Simon pulled Ruutu's legs behind his and skated over his right knee. Simon received a match penalty and was ejected from the game. His punishment as a repeat offender was a game suspension, the eighth suspension of his professional career and the second longest suspension in modern history of the NHL. Simon played one more game with the Islanders before being traded to the Minnesota Wild. He now plies his trade in the Russian professional league. It seems that there is a limit to the on-ice violence that the NHL, and its fans, will tolerate.
If one accepts the thesis that the violent and aggressive nature of modern sports is a factor to which fans respond, then we are still left with two important queries: 1 Why are violence and aggression a part of many popular sports?
From the perspective of an economist, the answer to question 1 is straightforward: Violence in sporting contests is an outcome of the forces of supply and demand, and violence and aggression exist and have always existed because fans respond positively to them. If spectators demand violence and aggression and are willing to pay to see such behavior, then teams and leagues will provide it.
An economics-based answer to question 2 is not so clear cut, and the traditional economist will not give much consideration to answering it. For the economist, preferences for or against violence and aggression are idiosyncratic, and understanding the mechanisms by which preferences are created does not generate sufficient scholarly interest.
Instead, the economist is intrigued by the way preferences are expressed in demand relationships and the ways in which incentives influence the way in which preferences are expressed. Answers to question 2 normally fall under the purview of other social sciences, such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology, which are more concerned with the causes of human behavior.
In the case of NFL football, a sociologist may be interested in explaining why fans demand violence and aggressive play, while an economist would be interested in explaining how violence in the game affects a team's attendance, revenues, or on-field success.
Furthermore, an historian may be interested in examining the historical factors and social processes that have led to the development of modern sports, especially the development of violent and aggressive sports. Most of the chapters in this book deal with an economic analysis of issues related to demand or success in sports and their relationship to violence within sports. However, the chapters also include historical perspectives on each specific league or sport.
As a means of providing some general background for the studies in this book, this chapter takes a quick look at social science research that attempts to explain fans' demand for violent and aggressive play, and especially the behavioral justification for the appeal of violence and aggression in spectator sports. This chapter also gives a brief overview of the history of violence in spectator sports. This brief historical review suggests that the most-popular spectator sports have always had violence as a component, a conclusion that George Orwell came to nearly 70 years ago.
Humans watch sports for many different reasons. For some spectators, sporting events simply provide entertainment in the form of unscripted drama and tension.
Alternatively, the entertainment value may be related to an appreciation of the athletic ability on display. In this way, sports are similar to the unscripted-nature of reality television or the beauty and grace of ballet.
For others, watching sports is a social activity, in which individuals of similar cultural or national backgrounds gather to have a community experience.
Many ancient sports e. Interestingly, we see the same sports-cum-cultural-festivals today in the modern Olympic Games, the association football World Cup, and the gridiron football Super Bowl. For some die-hard sports fans "fanatics" , watching their favorite sport or team is akin to a religious experience.
Whatever the reason, for the sports fan "following sport is a worthwhile leisure pursuit that enhances an individual's quality of life" Smith Academic studies have found that violence and aggressive play in sports may serve to enhance the entertainment value of a sporting event. Aggressive and violent play may intensify the entertainment value because it adds drama Comisky et al. Bryant et al. For male participants, the level of enjoyment increased as the roughness and violence increased.
Sargent et al. Each sport was placed in one of the three categories: combative e. According to the results, male respondents reported the most enjoyment from the violent, combative sports and the least enjoyment from nonrisky, mechanized sports. Female respondents, on the other hand, received the most enjoyment from elegant, stylistic sports. For men, excitement increased when violence was exhibited in athletic forms. These results suggest that spectators of combat sports and contact sports, especially males, are partially drawn to these sports because they provide something that other sports do not: aggressive and violent play.
In addition, anecdotal evidence suggests that spectators enjoy watching violence and aggression. In addition, five of the top six broadcast audiences of all time were Super Bowls Nielsonwire b. Although the NFL is clearly popular for many reasons, one could argue that the violence and aggression of the game is an intrinsic part of its lure for the fan. Commentator George Will famously said: "Football combines the two worst things about America: it is violence punctuated by committee meetings.
The asserting dominance theory is sometimes used to explain why violence in sports is entertaining Adler The hypothesis behind this theory is that spectators live vicariously through athletes, so that when a player slams the quarterback, it is as if the spectator accomplished the play. Betting on their favorite team or player also serves as indirect involvement in sporting events.
And, because it is all in the fun of games, spectators believe that their binges e. For these spectators, "the excitement of sport spectacles is safely vicarious" Guttmann CatharsisSome social researchers hypothesize that sporting events provide a way to contain human aggression, for both the athletes and the spectators. The catharsis theory, or the theory of purging of emotions, is based on the work of Austrian ethologist Konrad Lorenz. His theory has several supporting assumptions: " a that destructive energy spontaneously builds up in the organism, b that the performance of aggressive acts reduces such energy to tolerable levels, a process which is pleasantly experienced, c that the performance of competitive actions also serves this pleasing outlet function, and d that even merely witnessing competitive actions serves this function, one seems to have accounted for the popularity of sports-doing and viewing" as quoted in Zillmann et al.
In terms of sport spectatorship, viewing a sporting event serves to both build up and relieve the "destructive energy" Sipes ;Russell ;Wann et al. The theory also suggests that the more violent the sport is, the greater the pleasure received for both the participant and the viewer.
If the catharsis theory holds for sports spectators, we might expect to see less violence outside of the sports arena than would occur in the absence of violent and aggressive sporting contests.
Violence in sports
Research by economists has attempted to understand and explain behavior as it relates to sporting contests, showing that standard microeconomic theory used to explain consumer and producer behavior can also be applied to the behavior of fans, team owners, league executives and players. One commonality among many ancient and modern sports is the existence of violence and aggression in contests. From the perspective of an economist, violence in sporting contests is an outcome of the forces of supply and demand, and the phenomenon exists because fans respond to it. Spectator preferences for violence bid up the monetary return to this behavior, and the rational response is a more violent or aggressive output. The optimum level of violent or aggressive play in sporting contests is an empirical issue and this book contains chapters on violence and aggression in sports, concentrating on the reasons for the existence and persistence of such behavior.
Download Printable PDF. Worked two decades for major financial institutions on Wall Street. Op compositions create a sort of visual tension in the viewer's mind that. Goldstein and S. The 20th century saw many attempts at changing the status quo, and shaking the art world loose: perhaps beyond repair. Literature History.
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Chapter 2 A Brief History of Violence and Aggression in Spectator Sports
I know this is a risky venture, since most readers are used to short, concise sports reporting or opinion, but I am going to give it a shot anyway. This is a piece I wrote about some causes for violent and aggressive behavior in and at sporting events. I am presenting it here in three parts and I hope you all find the time to gain some knowledge on this subject. It has been said of sport, "It does not create the conditions for war, but it does maintain the possibility of those conditions, and adds its own efficiency to the other forces which produce a social order in which trails of strength are seen as part of the natural course of things" Holt, , p. George Orwell once made the observation, "Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play.
Джабба сидел весь потный, положив руки на клавиатуру. - Да, да, - сказал он, - читайте эту благословенную надпись. Сьюзан стояла рядом, у нее подгибались колени и пылали щеки. Все в комнате оставили свои занятия и смотрели на огромный экран и на Дэвида Беккера. Профессор вертел кольцо в пальцах и изучал надпись. - Читайте медленно и точно! - приказал Джабба. - Одна неточность, и все мы погибли.
Стрелка топливного индикатора указывала на ноль. И, как бы повинуясь неведомому сигналу, между стенами слева от него мелькнула тень. Нет сомнений, что человеческий мозг все же совершеннее самого быстродействующего компьютера в мире. В какую-то долю секунды сознание Беккера засекло очки в металлической оправе, обратилось к памяти в поисках аналога, нашло его и, подав сигнал тревоги, потребовало принять решение. Он отбросил бесполезный мотоцикл и пустился бежать со всех ног.
Держись от нее подальше. - Где она? - Сердце Беккера неистово колотилось. - Пошел к черту. - У меня неотложное дело! - рявкнул Беккер.
Что-то попало в процессор, создав заколдованный круг, и практически парализовало систему. - Знаешь, - сказала она, - Стратмор сидит в шифровалке уже тридцать шесть часов. Может быть, он сражается с вирусом. Джабба захохотал.
Казалось, тучный шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности вот-вот рухнет на пол. - Мертв. Но это значит… значит… что мы не можем… - Это значит, что нужен другой план действий.