Wind Energy Collectors And Storage Systems Pdf

wind energy collectors and storage systems pdf

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Due to increasing oil production and accelerating global warming, the need to develop clean, sustainable, and inexpensive energy supplies is growing. Currently, however, renewable energy sources can be more expensive in the short-term than nonrenewables, and little electricity is produced from solar energy or wind power. UCSC researchers have successfully demonstrated the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity by a low-cost solar thermoelectric system.

Energy storage

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For our own security we must reduce our dependence on foreign sources of energy. However, for our economy to grow we must obtain additional energy. Developing countries will also compete for this energy, because they must have additional energy sources before they can raise their standard of living and join the world's developed nations.

Like a dark cloud hanging over all of this are the pollution and global climate change these fuels produce. As we use more coal, oil, and gas, we only exacerbate the problem. As we seek to address the issues of global climate change and carbon management, we must remain aware of all these other issues.

To control and sequester carbon emissions will require additional energy. This will put additional pressure on our fossil reserves, our supply lines, and the energy infrastructure.

Currently, this world is inhabited by more than 5 billion individuals and is powered ultimately by solar energy. The food we eat and the oxygen we breathe comes from photosynthesis. Can we use this energy from the sun that indirectly powers our bodies to provide the energy we need to run our society?

This chapter discusses the possibilities and offers some suggestions as to the pathways to a sustainable energy infrastructure. Sustainable in this context means capable of supplying a growing population with energy without destroying the environment within which it is used. It must also include the ethics of using the earth's resources, particularly fossil fuels. It is completely unethical for us to squander the finite nonreplaceable.

We must try to look ahead, envision a future society, give it a voice, and use this to point out those issues that would clearly affect future lives.

To consume a resource without developing a replacement is clearly an issue that will affect future generations. To modify an existing energy infrastructure or build a new energy infrastructure requires money and energy—energy that must come from existing resources. Advanced renewable energy systems can provide long-term benefits to society—namely, sustainability. Manufacturing renewable energy systems for the developing world provides an economic benefit to the United States because a very large portion of the energy demand will occur in these regions.

The points to consider here are the following:. What is the market for renewable technologies versus sequestration technologies?

Distributed generation that uses indigenous local resources reduces the need to build and maintain large electrical grids. Our current energy and transportation infrastructure is plagued by many problems.

In addition, we must maintain an enhanced military presence in the Middle East to keep our access to this oil, which puts our military at risk. If we implement large-scale sequestration, it solves only the environmental issue, but the rest of the problems are actually exacerbated—we will have to burn more fossil fuel in order to generate the additional energy needed to power the sequestration systems to remove the CO 2 that our fossil fuel systems generate. This means importing more oil increasing our trade deficit or burning our own reserves at a faster rate.

Sequestration is only a temporary fix; eventually we will have to replace fossil fuels. Renewable technologies also have the ability to expand as our usage of and needs for energy grow.

Furthermore, renewable energy systems can be configured to supply not only all the electrical needs, but also all our transportation requirements. The United States can spend its money and energy resources building sequestration systems or implementing renewable energy technologies; it is not likely that we can or will do both.

The first part of this chapter therefore discusses the vision and possibilities of renewable energy such that the reader will be convinced of the viability of this approach. In the second part, a general list of research areas is presented. Because it would be impossible to cover all of the associated technologies fully, the author has chosen to present those technologies he feels could have an impact in the immediate to year time frame.

We first address the question, Can we really supply all our energy needs from renewable energy? The power of renewable energy can easily be shown using the United States as an example. States is the world's largest energy consumer. Total U. This area represents less than 0. If we add wind to the energy mix, this area for PV decreases further. If we add geothermal and hydropower, the area gets smaller still.

The point is clear: we can gather more than enough renewable energy to power our society and yet have an abundance of renewable resources available for future growth. Also, one should note that wind alone or solar thermal alone could provide all our electrical energy needs.

Although we have used Nevada for this calculation, PV panels can be placed across the entire United States. The U.

There are more than 10, landfills in the United States, and only 3, are active. The land is typically unusable for 20 to 30 years, and this is exactly the lifetime of PV systems. Furthermore, landfills produce methane as the organic matter decomposes. If methane is collected and used in a fuel cell, for example, this provides an additional energy input from the land. The way in which electricity is generated is as important as the area required to supply this amount of energy.

If we look at solar irradiance data how much sunshine is available per day , we see that, in southwest Nevada, the sun shines only for an annual average of about 6 hours a day. That effectively means that this system generates the same amount of electricity in 6 hours that the United States uses in 24 hours. The remaining 18 hours of electricity must be taken from the energy stored during the hours of sunlight.

Energy storage and its efficiency then become critical; any efficiency losses must be made up by an increase in the area of the PV array. This points out one of the major drawbacks to many forms of renewable energy—their intermittency and the need for energy storage. Dealing with the intermittent nature of certain forms of renewable energy and energy storage systems are topics in this discussion.

Implementing an energy infrastructure that uses more energy in its manufacture and deployment than it produces in its lifetime is not a viable pathway for the future. In fact, our current energy infrastructure has an energy payback ratio of about 0. A sustainable energy system will have an energy payback ratio greater than one. There is, however, the persistent myth that it takes more energy to manufacture renewables than they produce in their lifetime. Actual calculations show a very rapid payback.

For example, the energy payback time for current PV systems has been calculated to range from three to four years depending on the type of PV panel thin-film technology or multicrystalline silicon respectively. This means that PV with a lifetime of at least 30 years has a payback ratio of 8 to Wind energy has an even faster payback—two to three months, and this includes scraping the turbine at the end of its life.

Renewable energy resources can therefore be used to manufacture additional renewable energy systems, like a breeder plant, producing more energy than they use in the manufacture—the ultimate in sustainable energy systems. With the combination of PV, solar-thermal, wind, geothermal, biomass, and hydro, the United States has sufficient renewable resources for virtually unlimited energy growth. Moreover, PV, wind, geothermal, and biomass are commercial systems that are available now.

We now discuss some of the renewable generation technologies and then highlight some of the research issues. Photovoltaics solar cells convert light energy directly into direct current d.

As of January , the production of major manufacturers was sold out for next two years, and many new production facilities are being built. The major application in the past has been for remote applications far from the grid, but it is becoming more common to find PV on the rooftops of homes and integrated into buildings Figure 7.

In fact, building integrated PV has become a major market. In these days of heightened awareness of energy shortages, and in particular their effect on Internet businesses, energy reliability is becoming a major factor in the decision of companies to integrate PV into their buildings.

The siting issues are very important. PV does not impact the area with emissions as diesel generator sets do, and because there are no moving parts, maintenance is minimal. During the summer months, PV provides its maximum power just when air conditioning loads are the greatest.

Integrating PV into a building design decreases the installation costs, provides for additional energy reliability and reduces the load on the local grid since the electricity is generated at point of use. The advantages that thin films provide are high efficiency, reduced materials requirements, and an inexpensive and rapid manufacturing process.

Before these materials can make a major impact in the PV market, improved understanding of the scientific and technological base for today's thin films will be necessary Figure 7. Figure 7. For solar cells, the efficiency of commercially produced panels usually lags the laboratory efficiencies by about 10 years. Increasing the efficiency of any solar converter will decrease the area that must be covered to collect a fixed amount of energy.

Depending on the cost of the solar converter system, this can also lead to lower costs. For photovoltaics, one can greatly increase the conversion efficiency by designing cells to utilize specific areas colors of the solar spectrum and stacking them on top of one another in a series configuration.

A commercial example is found in the GaAs-GaInP 2 tandem cell currently used to power communication satellites. This solar cell consists of a gallium arsenide GaAs bottom cell connected to. One approach to deal with the high cost of these materials is to use them in a solar concentrating system, where most of the area of the expensive semiconductor is replaced by an inexpensive optical concentrator.

The GaInP 2 -GaAs system has been shown to operate at up to 1, times light concentration with active cooling. To show the power of this approach, if we take a PV manufacturing plant that is producing 10 MW of PV material per year and the material is capable of 1, times concentration, with the use of an optical concentrator system, that plant now produces 10, MW 10 GW of PV per year.

While current research involves mainly single-crystal material, applying multijunction technology to thin-film devices would provide great efficiency and cost benefits. Wind is the world's fastest-growing energy resource. In , worldwide wind-generating capacity was 18, MW. Wind can be very cost-effective in the displacement of fossil-generated electrons. Electricity from the Lake Benton I Wind energy turbines range from a few hundred watts to multimegawatt systems.

Denmark is currently producing a 2-MW system designed to be used mainly in offshore locations.

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The size of wind turbines varies widely. The length of the blades is the biggest factor in determining the amount of electricity a wind turbine can generate. Small wind turbines that can power a single home may have an electricity generating capacity of 10 kilowatts kW. The largest wind turbines in operation have electricity generating capacities of up to kilowatts 10 megawatts , and larger turbines are in development. Large turbines are often grouped together to create wind power plants, or wind farms , that provide power to electricity grids. Horizontal-axis turbines have blades like airplane propellers, and they commonly have three blades. The largest horizontal-axis turbines are as tall as story buildings and have blades more than feet long.

Proceedings Papers

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Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating , photovoltaics , solar thermal energy , solar architecture , molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis. It is an essential source of renewable energy , and its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems , concentrated solar power , and solar water heating to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light-dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

Such energy resources and carriers cover both renewable and non-renewable ones including solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, biomass, small-scale hydro, hydrogen energy, and natural gas hydrates. The term can also be interpreted to include new energy technologies such as fuel cell technologies which utilise the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity without combustion or mechanical movements. The HK RE Net is a thematic website aiming to provide information on various renewable energy technologies to the public, so as to facilitate the wider adoption of such technologies in Hong Kong. Click here to visit the site. Although renewable energy resources can contribute to mitigating the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels, most of them are intermittent in nature.

U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis

Solar energy

A hybrid wind and solar energy system with battery energy. One such example is the integration of wind turbines into solar hybrid power systems, as wind tends to complement solar because the peak operating times for each system occur at different times of the day and year. Wind is created by the unequal heating of the earths surface by the sun. Enercon works to design storage systems that work to your unique needs whether frequency regulation, var support, load shifting or backup power.

Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity , either directly using photovoltaics PV , indirectly using concentrated solar power , or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and solar tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic cells convert light into an electric current using the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaics were initially solely used as a source of electricity for small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to remote homes powered by an off-grid rooftop PV system.

Energy storage is the capture of energy produced at one time for use at a later time [1] to reduce imbalances between energy demand and energy production. A device that stores energy is generally called an accumulator or battery. Energy comes in multiple forms including radiation, chemical , gravitational potential , electrical potential , electricity, elevated temperature, latent heat and kinetic. Energy storage involves converting energy from forms that are difficult to store to more conveniently or economically storable forms. Some technologies provide short-term energy storage, while others can endure for much longer. Bulk energy storage is currently dominated by hydroelectric dams, both conventional as well as pumped. Grid energy storage is a collection of methods used for energy storage on a large scale within an electrical power grid.

Effective and Scalable Solar Energy Collector and Storage

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Сьюзан шла вперед, повторяя это имя, ее глаза неотрывно смотрели на экран. - Дэвид! - воскликнула она, еле держась на ногах.  - О, Дэвид… как они могли… Фонтейн растерялся: - Вы знаете этого человека. Сьюзан застыла в полутора метрах от экрана, ошеломленная увиденным, и все называла имя человека, которого любила. ГЛАВА 115 В голове Дэвида Беккера была бесконечная пустота.

 Очень умно, Грег. - Там подают отличный карпаччо.  - Хейл улыбнулся.  - Что скажешь. А потом мы могли бы… - Выкинь это из головы.

 Но, сеньор, она занята с клиентом. - Это очень важно, - извиняющимся тоном сказал Беккер. Вопрос национальной безопасности. Консьерж покачал головой: - Невозможно. Быть может, вы оставите… - Всего на одну минуту. Она в столовой.

U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis

 Шестьдесят четыре, - сказала она равнодушно.

Она была небольшой, приблизительно, наверное, метр на метр, но очень тяжелой. Когда люк открылся, Чатрукьян невольно отпрянул. Струя горячего воздуха, напоенного фреоном, ударила ему прямо в лицо. Клубы пара вырвались наружу, подкрашенные снизу в красный цвет контрольными лампами. Далекий гул генераторов теперь превратился в громкое урчание.

Сердце ее готово было выскочить из груди. Было видно, что Хейл ей не поверил. - Может быть, хочешь воды.

Фонтейн промолчал. И словно по волшебству в этот момент открылась дверь, и в комнату оперативного управления, запыхавшись, вбежала Мидж. Поднявшись на подиум, она крикнула: - Директор.

Он вел себя бесчестно по отношению ко многим людям, и Сьюзан Флетчер - одна из. Он очень о многом ей не сказал - о многих вещах, которых теперь стыдился. Она была его иллюзией, его живой фантазией. Он мечтал о ней по ночам, плакал о ней во сне. Он ничего не мог с собой поделать.

 Вирус? - снисходительно хмыкнул Стратмор, - Фил, я высоко ценю твою бдительность, очень высоко. Но мы с мисс Флетчер проводим диагностику особого рода. Это файл высочайшей сложности. Я должен был тебя предупредить, но не знал, что сегодня твое дежурство. Сотрудник лаборатории систем безопасности не стал выдавать дежурного.

Proceedings Papers

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Many innovative technologies have been developed around the world to meet its energy demands using renewable and nonrenewable resources.

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