Types Of Blood Products And Their Indications Pdf

types of blood products and their indications pdf

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Blood transfusions save millions of lives in the United States every year. People usually donate whole blood — blood taken right out of a vein through a needle.

Blood transfusions work to replace blood that is lost due to injury or surgery. People can also get blood transfusions to treat certain medical conditions. This article will outline what a blood transfusion is, when they are necessary, and what to expect during the procedure. A blood transfusion is a procedure that restores blood to the body. A healthcare professional will pass blood through a rubber tube into a vein using a needle or thin tube.

Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion

The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research CBER regulates the collection of blood and blood components used for transfusion or for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals derived from blood and blood components, such as clotting factors, and establishes standards for the products themselves. CBER also regulates related products such as cell separation devices, blood collection containers and HIV screening tests that are used to prepare blood products or to ensure the safety of the blood supply. CBER develops and enforces quality standards, inspects blood establishments and monitors reports of errors, accidents and adverse clinical events. CBER works closely with other parts of the Public Health Service PHS to identify and respond to potential threats to blood safety, to develop safety and technical standards, to monitor blood supplies and to help industry promote an adequate supply of blood and blood products. Over a period of years, FDA has progressively strengthened the overlapping safeguards that protect patients from unsuitable blood and blood products:.

Transfusions are given to increase the blood's ability to carry oxygen, restore the amount of blood in the body blood volume , and correct clotting problems. Transfusions are usually safe, but sometimes people have adverse reactions. To minimize the chance of an adverse reaction during a transfusion, health care practitioners take several precautions. Before starting the transfusion, usually a few hours or even a few days beforehand, the person is cross-matched with the donor blood not done for transfusions of plasma or platelets. After double-checking labels on the bags of blood that are about to be given to ensure the units are intended for that recipient, the health care practitioner gives the blood to the recipient slowly, generally over 1 to 4 hours for each unit of blood. Because most adverse reactions occur during the first 15 minutes of the transfusion, the recipient is closely observed at first. After that, a nurse checks on the recipient periodically and must stop the transfusion if an adverse reaction occurs.

Blood transfusions can be lifesaving. If the blood type is not a match, you can experience a transfusion reaction. These reactions are rare, but they can be harmful to your kidneys and lungs. In some cases they can be life threatening. This can be due to:. Blood transfusions are most commonly done for blood components, such as red blood cells, platelets, or plasma.

Massive Transfusion Protocol (MTP)

During the MTP, blood products are being given so rapidly that it's impossible to adjust product administration according to laboratory values usually by the time a laboratory test results are available, they are already obsolete. However, once the MTP is stopped, there will be time to check labs and make adjustments accordingly. This doesn't include everything, but rather it focuses on less obvious items which have a tendency to get overlooked. More on anticoagulation reversal here. Want to Download the Episode? We are the EMCrit Project , a team of independent medical bloggers and podcasters joined together by our common love of cutting-edge care, iconoclastic ramblings, and FOAM. Hypothermia from transfusion of cold products.

A more recent article on blood product transfusion in adults is available. Red blood cell transfusions are used to treat hemorrhage and to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells should be based on the patient's clinical condition. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anemia causing shortness of breath, dizziness, congestive heart failure, and decreased exercise tolerance , acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30 percent of blood volume. Fresh frozen plasma infusion can be used for reversal of anticoagulant effects. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet function defects.

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Clinical Guide to Transfusion

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Blood transfusions: What to know

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4 COMMENTS

Aidan E.

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The amount and part of the blood transfused depends on what the patient needs.

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Gay R.

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Safer Transfusion, healthier patients. That’s our mission.

Joshua S.

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Providing up-to-date information for physicians across oncology indications.

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