Product Design And Process Engineering Niebel Pdf

product design and process engineering niebel pdf

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In the light of growing global competition, organizations around the world today are constantly under pressure to produce high-quality products at an economical price. The integration of design and manufacturing activities into one common engineering effort has been recognized as a key strategy for survival and growth. Design for manufacturability DFM is an approach to design that fosters the simultaneous involvement of product design and process design. The implementation of the DFM approach requires the collaboration of both the design and manufacturing functions within an organization.

A knowledge-based approach to design for manufacturability

What is another name for time study? Another name for time study is work measurement. What is the principal objective of methods engineering? The principle objective of methods engineering is to improve productivity and decrease the unit cost of output while maintaining the health and safety of the worker. List the eight steps in applying methods engineering. The eight steps of methods engineering are: 1 select the project, 2 get and present the data, 3 analyze the data, 4 develop the ideal method, 5 present and install the method, 6 develop a job analysis, 7 establish time standards, 8 follow up the method.

Where were time studies originally made and who conducted them? Time studies originated In France in the manufacture of pins by Perronet. Explain Frederick W. Taylor's principles of scientific management. The principles of scientific management included: time study, standardization of all tools and tasks, use of a planning department, use of slide rules and other time saving implements, instruction cards for workers, bonuses for successful performance, differential rates, mnemonic systems classifying products, routing systems and modern costs systems.

What is meant by motion study, and who are the founders of the motion study technique? Motion study is the study of body motions used in performing an operation, with the thought of improving the operation by eliminating unnecessary motions and simplifying necessary motions, and then establishing the most favorable motion sequence. Frank and Lilian Gilbreth are considered the founders of motion study. Was the skepticism of management and labor toward rates established by efficiency experts understandable?

Why or why not? Yes, many unqualified analysts endeavored to establish standards. The results, in some instance, were quite unsatisfactory giving the profession a poor image. Which organizations are concerned with advancing the ideas of Taylor and the Gilbreths? What psychological reaction is characteristic of workers when methods changes are suggested? Resistance to change is very common in workers when methods changes are suggested. Explain the importance of the humanistic approach in methods and time study work.

The humanistic approach must be followed in order to help assure the success of methods and standards work. Regardless of the analyst s technical knowledge and ability, the analyst will not be completely successful in methods and time study work unless the analyst is competent in dealing with the operators as humans rather than as another element in the assembly line.

How are time study and methods engineering related? Time study should not be undertaken until a good method has been developed and installed. Why is work design an important element of methods study? Work design is an important element of methods study, because if the methods changes are inefficient or even injurious to the operators, any productivity improvements will be negated by increased medical and safety costs.

What important events have contributed to the need for ergonomics? The technological disasters at Three-Mile Island and Bhopal, India as wells as the increase in product liability and personal injury cases have contributed to a need for ergonomics. More recently, the rather dramatic increases in work-related musculoskeletal injuries also emphasizes for balancing the push for productivity with the inclusion of ergonomics.

What does the operation process chart show? The operator process chart shows the chronological sequence of all operations and inspections with the operation and inspection times included. What symbols are used in constructing the operation process chart? How does the operation process chart show materials introduced into the general flow?

Materials are introduced through horizontal lines feeding into the vertical flow lines. How does the flow process chart differ from the operation process chart?

The flow chart contains more detail than the operation process chart. In addition to operations and inspections, it includes transportations, storages, delays, and the times and distance involved.

What is the principal purpose of the flow process chart? Its principal purpose is to maximize total savings both direct and indirect costs of a product or system by the elimination of delays, storage, unnecessary transport, or excessive transport distances during its production or service process.

What symbols are used in constructing the flow process chart? A small circle is used for an operation, a square for an inspection, a triangle standing on its vertex for a storage, a D for a delay, and an arrow for a transportation.

Why is it necessary to construct process charts from direct observation as opposed to information obtained from the foreman? Information from the supervisor frequently is not accurate and may be biased. More reliable information is obtained by personal observation and measurement. In the construction of the flow process chart, what method can be used to estimate distances moved? Distances can be estimated by counting columns that the product moves past and then multiplying the distance between columns by the number of columns minus one.

How can delay times be determined in the construction of the flow process chart? Storage times? Delay times can be determined by marking several parts with chalk, recording the exact time they 3. When would you advocate using the flow diagram? Flow diagrams are useful in solving plant layout problems.

How can the flow of several different products be shown on the flow diagram? Different products can be shown by using a different color flow line for each product. What two flowchart symbols are used exclusively in the study of paper work?

Two concentric circles indicate the creation of a record or a set of papers. A crosshatched circle indicates the addition of information to a record.

What are the limitations of the operation and flow process charts and of the flow diagram? Both flow process charts and flow diagrams are useful in stating the problem, i. Other tools need to be used in developing the ideal method. Explain how the concept of PERT charting can save a company money. A PERT chart primarily serves to improve scheduling at the least cost.

What is the purpose of crashing?. The purpose of crashing is to reduce the project completion time, but probably at increased cost When is it advisable to construct a worker and machine process chart?

Worker and machine process charts are advisable whenever it appears that an operator or the machine being operated is idle during a portion of the work cycle. What is machine coupling? Machine coupling is the practice of having one employee operate more than one machine. In what way does an operator benefit through machine coupling? The operator benefits with typically higher wages, more responsibility, and increased job knowledge when assigned to two or more different work assignments.

How does the gang process chart differ from the worker and machine process chart? The gang process chart plots the activity of a group of workers servicing one facility or machine, 4. In a process plant, which of the following process charts has the greatest application: worker and machine, gang, operation, flow?

The flow process chart is probably the most useful because it highlights hidden costs such as distances traveled and delays. On the other hand, with like machines located together in a cell, the worker and machine process chart is useful for optimizing potential machine coupling. What is the difference between synchronous and random servicing? Synchronous servicing is where both the worker and the machine being serviced at regular intervals are occupied the whole cycle.

It is an ideal case which is seldom achieved. Completely random servicing refers to those cases in which it is not known when a facility will need to be serviced or how long the servicing will take.

Reducing which of the three times - worker, machine, or loading - would give the greatest effect on increasing productivity? Reducing loading time would have greatest effect on productivity, because it decreases time in both worker and machine columns.

Problems 1. Based on the following crash cost table, what would be the minimum time to complete the project described by Figure , whose normal costs are shown in Table ? What would be the added cost to complete the project within this time period? Thus no extra cost is incurred on path B-2, E-4, G With an 5. Each of these machines is down at random times during the day. A work sampling study indicated that on the average the machines operate 60 percent of the time unattended.

Operator attention time at irregular intervals averages 40 percent. Note that 4 machines is a very close second! The analyst in the Dorben Company wishes to assign a number of like facilities to an operator based on minimizing the cost per unit of output. A study revealed that a group of three semiautomatic machines assigned to one operator operate 70 percent of the time unattended. Operator service time at irregular intervals averaged 30 percent of the time on these three machines.

What would be the estimated machine hours lost per eight-hour day because of lack of an operator? Machines down Probability Machine hours lost 0 3! Based upon the following data, develop your recommended allocation of work and the number of work stations. A precedence matrix as follows was developed by the analyst: Estimated Time Work Unit Work Unit Required production per day is 90 assemblies and should not exceed assemblies per day.

Time Cum. Unassigned Thus, this job should be designed for four work stations with elements 1, 2, 0, and 7 assigned to the first station; elements 3 and 4 to the second station; element 3 to the third station; and elements 5, 6, 9, and 10 to the fourth station.

Product Design and Process Engineering

I get my most wanted eBook. Providing a broad introduction to industrial and systems engineering, this book defines industrial and systems engineering, describes it place in the business world, and offers a wide picture of the functional areas with some solution techniques. Introduction and Review 1 Chapter Objectives 1 1. We have made it easy for you to find a PDF Ebooks without any digging. Book, Introduction to Industrial Engineering. Civil Engineering.

Product design and process engineering, Benjamin W. Niebel and Alan B. Draper, Mcgraw‐Hill, New York, , pp. $ Philip Weiss. General Motors.

Product Design and Development

Embed Size px x x x x The volume does, however, provide the necessary links to both biology and chemistry so that anyone can follow them to wherever they lead. It certainly belongs in all libraries, both public and private which have anything to do with peptides and proteins, whether they be physically or chemically oriented. Niebel and Alan B. This modern text, Product Design and Process Engineering, is primarily for undergraduate students in engineering and technical disciplines associated with the functional design of products or the design of product oriented man- ufacturing processes.

What is another name for time study? Another name for time study is work measurement. What is the principal objective of methods engineering? The principle objective of methods engineering is to improve productivity and decrease the unit cost of output while maintaining the health and safety of the worker. List the eight steps in applying methods engineering.

Leonard, Edward F. Niebel, Benjamin W. Last reviewed: January A branch of engineering in which a process effects chemical and mechanical transformations of matter, conducted continuously or repeatedly on a substantial scale. Process engineering constitutes the specification, optimization, realization, and adjustment of the process applied to manufacture of bulk products or discrete products.

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Groover, M. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ Guinee, J. Plenum Publishing Corporation Gibson, I.

Embed Size px x x x x The volume does, however, provide the necessary links to both biology and chemistry so that anyone can follow them to wherever they lead.


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Methods engineering is a subspecialty of industrial engineering and manufacturing engineering concerned with human integration in industrial production processes.