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- The Evolution of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
- Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology I-O psychology which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, or work and organizational psychology; is an applied discipline within psychology. Industrial, work and organizational psychology IWO is the broader global term for the field internationally. The discipline is the science of human behavior relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work as well as the individual's work-life more generally.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter provides a background on industrial and organizational I-O psychology and on strategies for developing selection tests and for recruitment. Remarks from participants and formal presentations at the workshop have been integrated to keep similar topics and ideas together in this chapter of the proceedings. Morton McPhail Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology provided an overview of the field of industrial and organizational psychology to attendees.
Much of the research and work in the field has to do with understanding the nature of human behaviors in the workplace, McPhail explained. McPhail recognized that years of research in I-O psychology have provided knowledge that has brought improvements to many aspects of the workplace.
In addition, methods for development and validation of tests have been applied to thousands of different professions. McPhail noted that the field of foren-.
McPhail pointed to a list of competencies of I-O psychologists taken from guidelines for graduate-level education to illustrate the breadth of the field see Box He noted that three of these competencies are particularly relevant to the workshop: 9 criterion theory and development, 15 job analysis, and 22 personnel recruitment, selection, and placement. Each of these competencies represents knowledge of theories and techniques that are used to generate information to improve aspects of employment, as discussed in more detail below.
McPhail agreed that many areas of I-O psychology could help. In addition to the consideration of selection tools, the community could get help with measuring and assessing training programs, ensuring reliability of work outcomes, and controlling for bias.
These are all things that have been studied in the past in other contexts and could be brought to forensic science, he suggested.
Dan Putka HumRRO noted that the benefits of good selection practices and assessments can include improved job performance, reduced turnover, reduced training costs, reduced accidents, reduced counterproductive behavior e. Assessment as used in this workshop and in the field of I-O psychology as presented by McPhail implies many different methods and tools, Putka said.
Nancy Tippins CEB pointed out that different strategies to identify capable candidates can be used in different contexts and at different points in time, even within the same organization, and that there are a range of different types of selection assessments.
In some workplaces, one of these strategies may be sufficient. In other workplaces, several strategies for selection may be useful. For example, inventories of personality traits or tests of cognitive abilities in addition to an interview would provide information useful for selecting the best candidates from a number of applicants.
The steps of this process include job analysis, test development, criterion development, validation, implementation of the test into recruitment and hiring practices, and technical documentation. Tippins stressed implementation is not an insignificant step and requires concerted attention.
She added that documentation is important to record that the test was developed and validated in accordance with both legal guidelines and professional standards. According to McPhail, job or work analysis comes in many forms, such as task analysis, worker-oriented analysis, and competency analysis. Tippins pointed out that it is essential for I-O psychologists to understand the requirements of a job before developing selection tests or procedures.
A job analysis or work analysis is part of the test development and validation process that is designed to identify what the job requires in terms of tasks performed and the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics necessary to perform these tasks, as well as the environment in which the job is performed and any issues and contingencies that affect job performance.
Frederick Oswald Rice University noted that one reason for understanding the context is the ability to distinguish between issues and requests relevant to selection and those more relevant to training or recruitment. According to Tippins, before a job analysis is conducted, a project initiation meeting between I-O psychologists and organization leadership is held to confirm the goals of the project, identify any issues or constraints on the research or the intended selection procedures, and review the project plans.
Putka acknowledged that it is the role of I-O psychologists to work with organizations and subject matter experts to assemble a list of tasks, identify those tasks critical to perform the job, and use knowledge developed in I-O psychology to identify a set of attributes relevant to those tasks.
Often questionnaires are used to collect quantitative information from people who are very close to the job.
These job experts typically are asked to rate the task s in terms of frequency of use and importance to job outcomes. They are also asked to rate the selected knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics on importance and the extent to which these attributes are needed upon entry to the job.
For some jobs, off-the-shelf tests work fine. For example, she said, there are plenty of arithmetic tests, and one may not need to be developed. If a very special-. Presenters defined some terminology commonly used in the field of I-O psychology.
The connections between some of these terms are illustrated in Figure McPhail emphasized that one does not determine whether a procedure or a test is valid or invalid.
It is the interpretations from a procedure e. Validity, according to McPhail, is predicated on the evidence supporting the accuracy of these conclusions based on the test outcomes e.
Putka explained that characteristics can include personality, interests, work values, education, and experience. He pointed to the job analysis as a way of identifying which KSAOs are critical to successful job performance and which are irrelevant. It is important to differentiate between KSAOs that can be picked up through on-the-job training or experience and those that are needed upon entry to the job and thus important for selection purposes.
Putka explained that an observed predictor measure is a test or an assessment used to evaluate attributes that cannot necessarily be seen, such as deductive reasoning or an assessment of conscientiousness. Predictor measures often represent samples or simulations of critical job tasks that are identified through a job analysis.
These measures are developed to test for KSAOs that are critical to performance and needed at entry into a target job, and they are also known as aspects of the latent predictor domain.
Putka noted the large body of research in psychology devoted to mapping out individual differences in cognitive, psychomotor, and physical domains. Unobserved individual differences in KSAOs are considered elements of the latent predictor domain.
Putka explained that an observed criterion measure is an assessment of job performance, testing for outcomes that are actually required on the job. I-O psychologists develop criterion measures to evaluate and validate selection measures tests. Putka explained that performance constructs are dimensions of performance related to tasks e. Unobserved individual differences in performance constructs are considered elements of the latent criterion domain. In validating selection practices within an organization, Putka explained that transportability arguments could be used in situations where past research or past studies have examined similar jobs with similar predictor measures and similar job performance criteria.
Arguments could be made that results from those studies will generalize to the similar situation. Liberty Munson Microsoft Learning Experiences is a psychometrician who ensures the validity and reliability of tests on a regular basis, providing her expertise to tests annually.
She oversees the development of certification exams. Such exams serve a different purpose than. These steps can be broken down into nine development phases: 1 determining the need and rationale for a test, 2 creating a list of skills that could be measured on the test, 3 surveying subject matter experts to determine the importance of these skills and frequency of use, 4 creating and carefully reviewing test items for each skill, 5 field testing the test beta , 6 revising test items based on feedback from the beta test, 7 setting the cut score passing standard , 8 publishing or implementing the test, and 9 monitoring reliability and validity of the test.
According to Munson, different sets of subject matter experts are consulted at each stage of the test development. They provide input for the list of tasks and skills that will be assessed through the job analysis. They usually write test items, and a different set of experts reviews the set of items questions for clarity, accuracy, and relevance, she explained.
They also take the test as part of field testing and provide comments, and they provide guidance when setting the cut score. Munson noted that during development, results from the field test are analyzed to review the quality of the test items to determine if they are too difficult or too easy and are able to differentiate between high and low performers.
She noted that in field testing, it is important to consider the comments from subject matter experts in addition to the statistical analysis of the results, as these can point to issues that do not show up in the statistics.
At this point, individual test items may be removed from the exam or revised. Munson emphasized that writing good test items is difficult. Depending on the content domain, subject matter experts or professional test writers create test items; professional test editors typically edit questions created by subject matter experts. A final step in test development is setting a cut score or standard setting.
According to Munson, certification exams generate a pass or fail result with determination of a minimum score that ensures one can do the tasks or skills the exam is designed to measure. Selection tests, on the other hand, are often scored in such a way that allows comparisons among candidates and helps organizations identify the best candidates for the job. Munson explained that a variety of different techniques can be used for standard setting, but many boil down to thinking about the minimal required competence of the target audience and the percentage of questions they should get right.
Heidi Eldridge RTI International , workshop participant, pointed out that on current certification exams for latent fingerprint examiners, a distinction is drawn between knowledge ques-. In contrast, certification exams are generally used to confirm that someone can actually perform the job tasks. Munson acknowledged that test development, in general, avoids gatekeeping items individual test items that must be answered correctly to allow room for natural error in the process.
Oswald confirmed that the reliability of a single test item is typically low. However, multiple test items can form a functional group measure to increase the reliability of assessing a specific skill. Munson recognized that tests can lose their validity and reliability over time for a number of reasons e.
In some fields, it is challenging to maintain a reliable test as the environment and technology are continually changing.
In more stable fields, maintenance is easier, but review still needs to be done. Munson suggested a revisit of the job analysis and test development every 5 to 7 years or more frequently if there are significant changes in the field. In addition, the statistical performance should be monitored as people take the test, and the agency or community should have a process in place to remove items that are no longer valid, reliable, or psycho-metrically sound and add new content.
According to McPhail, there are many validation strategies for developing and documenting evidential bases. Three have particular prominence in employment testing because they are specifically mentioned in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures: 3 1 criterion related, 2 construct related, and 3 content related.
Putka and Tippins distinguished among the different validation strategies. They noted that all of the strategies involve establishing evidence that scores on a predictor measure are actually predictive of subsequent performance on the job or of some other criterion of interest e. In a criterion-related validation study, the evidence is a statistical relationship e. Tippins emphasized that the criterion measure needs to be collected in the same way using the same instruments for all people.
In the. However, if applicants are tested, often a longer waiting period ensues before accurate measures of performance can be made. In a construct-related validation, according to Putka, existing theory and relevant literature are used to justify linkages between the predictor measure and criterion.
Putka pointed out that declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge and skill tend to be malleable and therefore amenable to training, whereas attributes like ability and personality are viewed as more stable individual differences that are not as trainable. If a job requires certain ability or personality attributes going in, Putka suggested they should be considered at the selection or recruiting stage and not at the training stage. In content-related validation, Putka noted that the predictor measure closely resembles what people do on the job.
The evidence to link the predictor measure to the criterion is bolstered by judgments of subject matter experts. Tippins explained that subject matter experts are asked to judge the extent different KSAOs are needed to perform the task, as well as to judge the extent to which the test predictor measure measures critical KSAOs.
She noted that relying on subject matter experts can make the validation process easier in some respects but more difficult in others. According to Tippins, subject matter experts usually know what the job requires in terms of task but may find it tedious or challenging to link KSAOs to the task and test.
She noted that sometimes I-O psychologists will use professional test writers instead of job experts to make judgments about the relationships between KSAOs and the tests.
The Evolution of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Humanitarian Work Psychology pp Cite as. Industrial and organizational I-O psychology, as a profession, stands on the verge of a new practical application of its expertise: the challenge of the reduction of world poverty. I-O psychology has developed a series of theories and methodologies that have altered the world of business and the working lives of millions over the course of a century. As a science, I-O psychology progressed as all science does: in incremental steps, each step building on the progress of the one just before it. We believe it is time to take the next leap, to become more international in our thinking and to apply our expertise to solve one of the major global problems of our time: poverty.
Also, be sure to complete the online daily self-assessment. Print Industrial Organizational Psychologist. They are able to focus on the study of effective workplace behaviors, team dynamics and development, or on individual employee issues. Possible research or teaching positions are also available at the Ph. D level.
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Industrial and Organizational Psychology
This journal is published twice a year in June and December. Fenomena aims to be a means of communication and exchange of scientific work for the college student, lecturers, and researchers to publish research articles or conceptual articles. Fenomena Journal was first published in
Contextual background is integrated with the development of science and practice from a chronological perspective, partitioning this history into seven somewhat arbitrary time periods. Following a discussion of pre precursors, we discuss the genesis of the field from to , when dynamic cultural, economic, and other external forces influenced early efforts in areas such as advertising, fatigue, and selection. The period of to included the influential Hawthorne Studies and the maturation of industrial psychology, while to saw considerable expansion during World War II and its aftermath. We close with an overview of developments from to the present day.
Focusing on the late nineteenth century and early twentieth centuries, this book provides a history of the origins of industrial-organizational psychology. Taking an international perspective, The Early Years of Industrial and Organizational Psychology examines the context in which industrial psychology emerged and its origins in the measurement of individual differences. Andrew J.
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Industrial-organizational psychology is the branch of psychology that applies psychological theories and principles to organizations. Often referred to as I-O psychology, this field focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well-being of employees. Industrial-organizational psychologists perform a wide variety of tasks, including studying worker attitudes and behavior, evaluating companies, and conducting leadership training. The overall goal of this field is to study and understand human behavior in the workplace. You can think of industrial-organizational psychology as having two major sides. First, there is the industrial side, which involves looking at how to best match individuals to specific job roles.
Industrial psychology, also known as industrial-organizational or I-O psychology, is concerned with the study of human behavior in the workplace. Industrial psychologists study and evaluate a company's culture, employee behavior, and work processes, and create or recommend programs and practices to improve employee productivity and organizational performance. Industrial psychologists work with an organization's human resources department, observing employees' behavior in the work environment, assessing organizational workflows and practices, and identifying opportunities for improvement. The following constitute the main subject areas of industrial psychology:. Industrial psychologists assist the human resources department with the development of recruitment processes and the selection of personnel. This includes the development of job announcements, defining key qualifications, and developing selection assessments.
The JWOP will mainly publish empirical research of interest for psychologists, and which represents a contribution to knowledge in all areas of which can be termed industrial, work and organizational psychology, human resource, organizational behavior, personnel psychology, as well as behavioral, cognitive and neuroscientific aspects of labor relations, ergonomics, and human factors. The JWOP is a Spanish journal but does not wish itself to limit to Spanish contributions or Spanish-language contributors, wishing to have an international authorship. Authors should not submit manuscripts simultaneously to multiple journals. Web of Science Clarivate Factor de Impacto: 1. Applied Psychology: Ranking 54 de 84 Q3. I am engaged, I feel good, and I go the extra-mile: Reciprocal relationships between work engagement and consequences. Your request has been saved.
Using both classic theories and research along with the latest developments and innovations, this student-centered text. Each chapter includes key. The seventh edition is thoroughly updated to include.
Industrial-organizational psychology , formerly called industrial psychology , application of concepts and methods from several subspecialties of the discipline such as learning , motivation , and social psychology to business and institutional settings. The field of I-O psychology contributed to the development of human factors engineering, or ergonomics , which involves designing equipment e. See also applied psychology.
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Organizational psychology is the science of psychology applied to work and organizations. This field of inquiry spans more than a century and covers an increasingly diverse range of topics as the nature of work and organizations continue to evolve. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of organizational psychology as a field of inquiry and the topics covered in this handbook, which endeavors to encapsulate key topics of research and application, summarize important research findings, and identify innovative directions for research and practice. The chapter is organized around four sections. First, it begins with a brief overview of the evolution of the concept of work and the changing career model to provide a backdrop to our examination of the psychology of organizations.
Мы с ним какое-то время переписывались, - как бы невзначай сказал Хейл. - С Танкадо.
Она была его иллюзией, его живой фантазией. Он мечтал о ней по ночам, плакал о ней во сне. Он ничего не мог с собой поделать. Она была блистательна и прекрасна, равной ей он не мог себе даже представить.
Да нет, конечно! - Клушар почему-то улыбнулся. - Какой смысл хлестать мертвую кобылу. Парень был уже мертв, когда прибыла скорая.
Тот вскрикнул и испуганно посмотрел на Беккера. Как кот, пойманный с канарейкой в зубах, святой отец вытер губы и безуспешно попытался прикрыть разбившуюся бутылку вина для святого причастия. - Salida! - крикнул Беккер. - Salida.
Хейл же был уверен, что галит - некий драгоценный камень, поэтому считал, что это прозвище вполне соответствует его выдающимся умственным способностям и прекрасному телосложению. Будь он менее самонадеян, он, конечно же, заглянул бы в энциклопедию и обнаружил, что это не что иное, как солевой осадок, оставшийся после высыхания древних морей. Как и все криптографы АНБ, Хейл зарабатывал огромные деньги, однако вовсе не стремился держать этот факт при .
Сьюзан едва заметно кивнула: - Он требовал, чтобы мы сделали признание… о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ… это стоило ему… - Признание? - растерянно прервал ее Бринкерхофф.