Viruses Plagues And History Pdf

viruses plagues and history pdf

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The story of viruses and humanity is a story of fear and ignorance, of grief and heartbreak, and of. Michael Oldstone tells all these stories as he illuminates the history of.

Plague is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis and is still endemic in indigenous rodent populations of South and North America, Africa and Central Asia. In epidemics plague is transmitted to humans by the bite of the Oriental or Indian rat flea and the human flea.

Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A

In the new millennium, the centuries-old strategy of quarantine is becoming a powerful component of the public health response to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. During the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome, the use of quarantine, border controls, contact tracing, and surveillance proved effective in containing the global threat in just over 3 months. For centuries, these practices have been the cornerstone of organized responses to infectious disease outbreaks.

However, the use of quarantine and other measures for controlling epidemic diseases has always been controversial because such strategies raise political, ethical, and socioeconomic issues and require a careful balance between public interest and individual rights. In a globalized world that is becoming ever more vulnerable to communicable diseases, a historical perspective can help clarify the use and implications of a still-valid public health strategy.

The risk for deadly infectious diseases with pandemic potential e. To lessen the risk from these new and resurging threats to public health, authorities are again using quarantine as a strategy for limiting the spread of communicable diseases 1.

The history of quarantine—not in its narrower sense, but in the larger sense of restraining the movement of persons or goods on land or sea because of a contagious disease—has not been given much attention by historians of public health.

Yet, a historical perspective of quarantine can contribute to a better understanding of its applications and can help trace the long roots of stigma and prejudice from the time of the Black Death and early outbreaks of cholera to the influenza pandemic 2 and to the first influenza pandemic of the twenty-first century, the influenza A H1N1 pdm09 outbreak 3. Since the fourteenth century, quarantine has been the cornerstone of a coordinated disease-control strategy, including isolation, sanitary cordons, bills of health issued to ships, fumigation, disinfection, and regulation of groups of persons who were believed to be responsible for spreading the infection 4 , 5.

Organized institutional responses to disease control began during the plague epidemic of — 6. The plague was initially spread by sailors, rats, and cargo arriving in Sicily from the eastern Mediterranean 6 , 7 ; it quickly spread throughout Italy, decimating the populations of powerful city-states like Florence, Venice, and Genoa 8.

The pestilence then moved from ports in Italy to ports in France and Spain 9. From northeastern Italy, the plague crossed the Alps and affected populations in Austria and central Europe.

Toward the end of the fourteenth century, the epidemic had abated but not disappeared; outbreaks of pneumonic and septicemic plague occurred in different cities during the next years 8. Medicine was impotent against plague 8 ; the only way to escape infection was to avoid contact with infected persons and contaminated objects. Thus, some city-states prevented strangers from entering their cities, particularly, merchants 10 and minority groups, such as Jews and persons with leprosy.

A sanitary cordon—not to be broken on pain of death—was imposed by armed guards along transit routes and at access points to cities. Implementation of these measures required rapid, firm action by authorities, including prompt mobilization of repressive police forces.

A rigid separation between healthy and infected persons was initially accomplished through the use of makeshift camps The lazaretto was commonly referred to as Nazarethum or Lazarethum because of the resemblance of the word lazaretto to the biblical name Lazarus In , Genoa adopted the Venetian system, and in in Marseille, France, a hospital for persons with leprosy was converted into a lazaretto.

Lazarettos were located far enough away from centers of habitation to restrict the spread of disease but close enough to transport the sick. Where possible, lazarettos were located so that a natural barrier, such as the sea or a river, separated them from the city; when natural barriers were not available, separation was achieved by encircling the lazaretto with a moat or ditch.

In ports, lazarettos consisted of buildings used to isolate ship passengers and crew who had or were suspected of having plague. Merchandise from ships was unloaded to designated buildings. Treatment of the goods consisted of continuous ventilation; wax and sponge were immersed in running water for 48 hours. It is not known why 40 days was chosen as the length of isolation time needed to avoid contamination, but it may have derived from Hippocrates theories regarding acute illnesses.

Another theory is that the number of days was connected to the Pythagorean theory of numbers. The number 4 had particular significance.

Forty days was the period of the biblical travail of Jesus in the desert. Forty days were believed to represent the time necessary for dissipating the pestilential miasma from bodies and goods through the system of isolation, fumigation, and disinfection. In the centuries that followed, the system of isolation was improved 13 — After notification of a fresh outbreak of plague along the eastern Mediterranean Sea, port cities to the west were closed to ships arriving from plague-infected areas The first city to perfect a system of maritime cordons was Venice, which because of its particular geographic configuration and its prominence as a commercial center, was dangerously exposed 12 , 15 , The arrival of boats suspected of carrying plague was signaled with a flag that would be seen by lookouts on the church tower of San Marco.

This precaution was based on a mistaken hypothesis i. The captain had to show proof of the health of the sailors and passengers and provide information on the origin of merchandise on board. If there was suspicion of disease on the ship, the captain was ordered to proceed to the quarantine station, where passengers and crew were isolated and the vessel was thoroughly fumigated and retained for 40 days 13 , This system, which was used by Italian cities, was later adopted by other European countries.

The first English quarantine regulations, drawn up in , provided for the confinement in the Thames estuary of ships with suspected plague-infected passengers or crew. In in Marseille, new laws required that all persons suspected of having plague be quarantined and disinfected. In ports in North America, quarantine was introduced during the same decade that attempts were being made to control yellow fever, which first appeared in New York and Boston in and , respectively In some colonies, the fear of smallpox outbreaks, which coincided with the arrival of ships, induced health authorities to order mandatory home isolation of persons with smallpox 19 , even though another controversial strategy, inoculation, was being used to protect against the disease.

In the United States, quarantine legislation, which until was the responsibility of states, was implemented in port cities threatened by yellow fever from the West Indies In , quarantine measures were prescribed during an epidemic of plague that broke out in Marseille and ravaged the Mediterranean seaboard of France and caused great apprehension in England.

In England, the Quarantine Act of was renewed in and and again in during the disastrous epidemic at Messina, Sicily A system of active surveillance was established in the major Levantine cities.

The network, formed by consuls of various countries, connected the great Mediterranean ports of western Europe By the eighteenth century, the appearance of yellow fever in Mediterranean ports of France, Spain, and Italy forced governments to introduce rules involving the use of quarantine But in the nineteenth century, another, even more frightening scourge, cholera, was approaching Cholera emerged during a period of increasing globalization caused by technological changes in transportation, a drastic decrease in travel time by steamships and railways, and a rise in trade.

Despite progress regarding the cause and transmission of cholera, there was no effective medical response During the first wave of cholera outbreaks, the strategies adopted by health officials were essentially those that had been used against plague.

New lazarettos were planned at western ports, and an extensive structure was established near Bordeaux, France In cities, authorities adopted social interventions and the traditional health tools. For example, travelers who had contact with infected persons or who came from a place where cholera was present were quarantined, and sick persons were forced into lazarettos. In general, local authorities tried to keep marginalized members of the population away from the cities In in Naples, health officials hindered the free movement of prostitutes and beggars, who were considered carriers of contagion and, thus, a danger to the healthy urban population 27 , This response involved powers of intervention unknown during normal times, and the actions generated widespread fear and resentment.

In some countries, the suspension of personal liberty provided the opportunity—using special laws—to stop political opposition. However, the cultural and social context differed from that in previous centuries. In England, liberal reformers contested both quarantine and compulsory vaccination against smallpox. Social and political tensions created an explosive mixture, culminating in popular rebellions and uprisings, a phenomenon that affected numerous European countries In the Italian states, in which revolutionary groups had taken the cause of unification and republicanism 27 , cholera epidemics provided a justification i.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, an increasing number of scientists and health administrators began to allege the impotence of sanitary cordons and maritime quarantine against cholera. These old measures depended on the idea that contagion was spread through the interpersonal transmission of germs or by contaminated clothing and objects This theory justified the severity of measures used against cholera; after all, it had worked well against the plague.

The length of quarantine 40 days exceeded the incubation period for the plague bacillus, providing sufficient time for the death of the infected fleas needed to transmit the disease and of the biological agent, Yersinia pestis. However, quarantine was almost irrelevant as a primary method for preventing yellow fever or cholera.

A rigid maritime cordon could only be effective in protecting small islands. During the terrifying cholera epidemic of —, the island of Sardinia was the only Italian region to escape cholera, thanks to surveillance by armed men who had orders to prevent, by force, any ship that attempted to disembark persons or cargo on the coast Anticontagionists, who disbelieved the communicability of cholera, contested quarantine and alleged that the practice was a relic of the past, useless, and damaging to commerce.

In addition, quarantine inspired a false sense of security, which was dangerous to public health because it diverted persons from taking the correct precautions. International cooperation and coordination was stymied by the lack of agreement regarding the use of quarantine. The discussion among scientists, health administrators, diplomatic bureaucracies, and governments dragged on for decades, as demonstrated in the debates in the International Sanitary Conferences 31 , particularly after the opening, in , of the Suez Canal, which was perceived as a gate for the diseases of the Orient Despite pervasive doubts regarding the effectiveness of quarantine, local authorities were reluctant to abandon the protection of the traditional strategies that provided an antidote to population panic, which, during a serious epidemic, could produce chaos and disrupt public order Disinfecting clothing.

France—Italy border during the cholera epidemic of — Photograph in the author's possession. The female dormitory. The control of travelers from cholera-affected countries, who were arriving by land at the France—Italy border during the cholera epidemic of — A turning point in the history of quarantine came after the pathogenic agents of the most feared epidemic diseases were identified between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

International prophylaxis against cholera, plague, and yellow fever began to be considered separately. In light of the newer knowledge, a restructuring of the international regulations was approved in by the 11th Sanitary Conference, at which the famed convention of articles was signed At the time, the battle against infectious diseases seemed about to be won, and the old health practices would only be remembered as an archaic scientific fallacy.

No one expected that within a few years, nations would again be forced to implement emergency measures in response to a tremendous health challenge, the influenza pandemic, which struck the world in 3 waves during — Technical Appendix.

At the time, the etiology of the disease was unknown. Most scientists thought that the pathogenic agent was a bacterium, Haemophilus influenzae , identified in by German bacteriologist Richard Pfeiffer During —, in a world divided by war, the multilateral health surveillance systems, which had been laboriously built during the previous decades in Europe and the United States, were not helpful in controlling the influenza pandemic.

At the beginning of the pandemic, the medical officers of the army isolated soldiers with signs or symptoms, but the disease, which was extremely contagious, quickly spread, infecting persons in nearly every country.

Various responses to the pandemic were tried. Health authorities in major cities of the Western world implemented a range of disease-containment strategies, including the closure of schools, churches, and theaters and the suspension of public gatherings. In Paris, a sporting event, in which 10, youths were to participate, was postponed Yale University canceled all on-campus public meetings, and some churches in Italy suspended confessions and funeral ceremonies.

Physicians encouraged the use of measures like respiratory hygiene and social distancing. However, the measures were implemented too late and in an uncoordinated manner, especially in war-torn areas where interventions e. In Italy, which along with Portugal had the highest mortality rate in Europe, schools were closed after the first case of the unusually severe hemorrhagic pneumonia; however, the decision to close schools was not simultaneously accepted by health and scholastic authorities Decisions made by health authorities often seemed focused more on reassuring the public about efforts being made to stop transmission of the virus rather than on actually stopping transmission of the virus

Viruses, Plagues, and History: Past, Present and Future

As humans have spread across the world, so have infectious diseases. Even in this modern era, outbreaks are nearly constant, though not every outbreak reaches pandemic level as COVID has. Disease and illnesses have plagued humanity since the earliest days, our mortal flaw. However, it was not until the marked shift to agrarian communities that the scale and spread of these diseases increased dramatically. Widespread trade created new opportunities for human and animal interactions that sped up such epidemics.

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{mobiePub} Viruses Plagues and History Past Present and Future EBOOK #pdf

The history of virology — the scientific study of viruses and the infections they cause — began in the closing years of the 19th century. Although Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner developed the first vaccines to protect against viral infections, they did not know that viruses existed. The first evidence of the existence of viruses came from experiments with filters that had pores small enough to retain bacteria. In , Dmitri Ivanovsky used one of these filters to show that sap from a diseased tobacco plant remained infectious to healthy tobacco plants despite having been filtered. Martinus Beijerinck called the filtered, infectious substance a "virus" and this discovery is considered to be the beginning of virology.

History of virology

Psychiatry of Pandemics pp Cite as. Intermittent outbreaks of infectious diseases have had profound and lasting effects on societies throughout history.

The History of Plague – Part 1. The Three Great Pandemics

Throughout the course of history, disease outbreaks have ravaged humanity, sometimes changing the course of history and, at times, signaling the end of entire civilizations. Here are 20 of the worst epidemics and pandemics, dating from prehistoric to modern times. Related: Spanish flu: The deadliest pandemic in history. About 5, years ago, an epidemic wiped out a prehistoric village in China. The bodies of the dead were stuffed inside a house that was later burned down. No age group was spared, as the skeletons of juveniles, young adults and middle-age people were found inside the house.

In the new millennium, the centuries-old strategy of quarantine is becoming a powerful component of the public health response to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. During the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome, the use of quarantine, border controls, contact tracing, and surveillance proved effective in containing the global threat in just over 3 months. For centuries, these practices have been the cornerstone of organized responses to infectious disease outbreaks.

Bulletin of the History of Medicine Michael Oldstone has written a book for the general reader that makes explicit the inextricable interaction of disease and society. Focusing on the major viral diseases afflicting humankind, he has felicitously integrated synoptic views of their history and their science. His book, as he explains in the preface, "was conceived in the spirit of Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunter s" p. Oldstone's tempered and generally well-researched account is a welcome balance to de Kruif's overdrawn characters and the plague of plague books that have infected recent best-seller lists.

Brief History of Pandemics (Pandemics Throughout History)

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Written by an eminent internationally respected virologist, it couples the fabric of history with major concepts developed in virology, immunology, vaccination, and accounts by people who first had, saw and acted at the times these events occurred. Much of the preventive and therapeutic progress vaccines, antiviral drugs has been made in the last 60 years. Many of those who played commanding roles in the fight to understand, control and eradicate viruses and viral diseases are were personally known to Many of those who played commanding roles in the fight to understand, control and eradicate viruses and viral diseases are were personally known to the author and several episodes described in this book reflect their input. Influenza, under reasonable containment at present, but with the potential to revert to a world-wide pandemic similar to — where over 50 million people were killed. The new platforms to develop inhibitory and prophylactic vaccines to limit these and other viral diseases is contrasted to the anti-vaccine movement and the false prophets of autism. Keywords: history of epidemics , COVID , ebola , influenza , polio , measles , smallpox , zika , aut.

ГЛАВА 117 - Трансляция видеофильма начнется через десять секунд, - возвестил трескучий голос агента Смита.  - Мы опустим каждый второй кадр вместе со звуковым сопровождением и постараемся держаться как можно ближе к реальному времени. На подиуме все замолчали, не отрывая глаз от экрана. Джабба нажал на клавиатуре несколько клавиш, и картинка на экране изменилась. В левом верхнем углу появилось послание Танкадо: ТЕПЕРЬ ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА Правая часть экрана отображала внутренний вид мини-автобуса и сгрудившихся вокруг камеры Беккера и двух агентов.

Когда он перевернул ее на спину и взгромоздился сверху, она подумала, что сейчас он ее раздавит. Его массивная шея зажала ей рот, и Росио чуть не задохнулась. Боже, поскорей бы все это закончилось, взмолилась она про. - Si. Si! - вскрикивала она в интервалах между его рывками и впивалась ногтями ему в спину, стараясь ускорить его движения.

 - Нет. Хейл сжал ее горло. - Если вы вызовете службу безопасности, она умрет.

Он вызвал скорую. Мы решили уйти. Я не видела смысла впутывать моего спутника, да и самой впутываться в дела, связанные с полицией.

Viruses, Plagues, and History: Past, Present, and Future

Сьюзан услышала стук беретты, выпавшей из руки Стратмора. На мгновение она словно приросла к месту, не зная, куда бежать и что делать.

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Viruses, Plagues, and History provoke the fear today that yellow fever, poliomyelitis, and smallpox did in previous times. Another virus never before seen in.

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