Difference Between Slow Sand Filter And Rapid Sand Filter Pdf

difference between slow sand filter and rapid sand filter pdf

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Perspectives are different frameworks from which to explore the knowledge around sustainable sanitation and water management. Perspectives are like filters: they compile and structure the information that relate to a given focus theme, region or context.

Sand filtration: rapid versus slow

The rapid sand filter or rapid gravity filter is a type of filter used in water purification and is commonly used in municipal drinking water facilities as part of a multiple-stage treatment system. Rapid sand filters were first developed in the s, and improved designs were developed by the s.

Fuller in Little Falls, New Jersey. Rapid sand filters are typically designed as part of multi-stage treatment systems used by large municipalities. These systems are complex and expensive to operate and maintain, and therefore less suitable for small communities and developing nations. The filtration system requires a relatively small land area in proportion to the population served, and the design is less sensitive to changes in raw water quality, e.

Rapid sand filters use relatively coarse sand and other granular media to remove particles and impurities that have been trapped in a floc through the use of flocculation chemicals—typically alum. Since media other than silica sand can be used in such filters, a more modern term is "rapid filtration" instead of "rapid sand filtration. Mixing, flocculation and sedimentation processes are typical treatment stages that precede filtration.

Chemical additives, such as coagulants, are often used in conjunction with the filtration system. The two types of rapid sand filter are the gravity type e. Paterson's filter and pressure type e. Candy's filter.

A disinfection system typically using chlorine or ozone is commonly used following filtration. Rapid sand filters must be cleaned frequently, often several times a day, by backwashing , which involves reversing the direction of the water and adding compressed air.

During backwashing, the bed is fluidized and care must be taken not to wash away the media. The byproduct of backwashing is sludge which is either tankered away or is run to waste if the composition is within the tolerable limits. These tanks are known as "Dirty washwater tanks".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cincinnati, OH. Water Filtration Practices. June Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. L : — Paper No.

Water 4. Akgiray, N. Eldem, A. On the use of crushed recycled glass instead of silica sand in dual-media filters. Clean — Soil, Air, Water 41 4 , — Spellman, Frank R. CRC Press. Separation processes. Aqueous two-phase system Azeotrope Eutectic. Unit operation. Categories : Water filters Water technology. Namespaces Article Talk.

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Slow Sand Filtration

The aim of this study was to compare between slow and rapid sand filters for the removal of free-living amoebae during drinking water treatment production. Overall, 48 water samples were collected from two drinking water treatment plants having two different filtration systems slow and rapid sand filters and from inlet and outlet of each plant. The isolates of FLAs were microscopically identified to the genus level based on the morphologic criteria and molecularly confirmed by the aid of PCR using genus-specific primers. Statistically, seasons had no significant effect on the prevalence of FLAs in the two different drinking water treatment plants. The appearance of FLAs especially pathogenic amoebae in completely treated drinking water may cause potential health threat although there is no statistical difference between the two examined drinking water filtration systems. Water contamination is a common problem to all over the world 1. The microbial contaminants include pathogens like bacteria, viruses, and parasites such as microscopic protozoa and worms.

The rapid sand filter or rapid gravity filter is a type of filter used in water purification and is commonly used in municipal drinking water facilities as part of a multiple-stage treatment system. Rapid sand filters were first developed in the s, and improved designs were developed by the s. Fuller in Little Falls, New Jersey. Rapid sand filters are typically designed as part of multi-stage treatment systems used by large municipalities. These systems are complex and expensive to operate and maintain, and therefore less suitable for small communities and developing nations. The filtration system requires a relatively small land area in proportion to the population served, and the design is less sensitive to changes in raw water quality, e. Rapid sand filters use relatively coarse sand and other granular media to remove particles and impurities that have been trapped in a floc through the use of flocculation chemicals—typically alum.

Rapid sand filter

There are two main types of sand filters that are used for water treatment: rapid sand filters also known as Rapid Gravity Filters or RGFs and slow sand filters. Sand filters should not be confused with Roughing Filters, which tend to be horizontal-flow gravel filters used as a roughing treatment for turbid raw waters prior to sand filtration. The two sand filtration processes differ from each other in several ways. In general however, rapid sand filters are usually fully automated, complex and costly, forming part of a wider treatment process in industrialized countries. They are not known to be suitable for household-level use, as is the case with versions of the slow sand filter, for example the intermittently operated slow sand filter or IOSFF.

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The filtration through sand is achieved by mechanical, physical and biological principles. The share of each of these processes during filtration depends on the flow rate of water in the filter and the presence of microorganisms. Due to the construction and water flow speed sand filters are divided into two basic groups: slow and rapid. Slow sand filters are open rectangular or cylindrical tanks 1 to 2 m deep.

How to Differentiate Between Rapid Gravity Filters and Slow Sand Filters?

Different between slow sand filter(SSF) and rapid sand filter(RSF).

Rapid Sand Filters. The resultant water after sedimentation will not be pure, and may contain some very fine suspended particles and bacteria in it. To remove or to reduce the remaining impurities still further, the water is filtered through the beds of fine granular material, such as sand, etc. The process of passing the water through the beds of such granular materials is known as Filtration. If a large enough particle follows the streamline, that lies very close to the media surface it will hit the media grain and be captured. Particles move randomly about within the fluid, due to thermal gradients. Filter Materials.

Hello friend, today I am going to learn you about differences between the slow sand filter and rapid sand filter. Please read carefully to get full knowledge of it. The process of passing the water through the bed of porous medium for removing bacteria, color, odor and producing clear and sparkling water is called infiltration. For filtration, filters are used.

Search Titles Subjects Organizations. Part B - Technology profiles 1. Technologies generally applicable to Island States 1. Of the water quality improvement technologies used in SIDS, the most commonly used are filtration and disinfection. Standard water supply textbooks provide specific descriptions of these widely-used technologies. Notwithstanding, filtration may be a physical, chemical, or, in some instances, biological process for separating suspended impurities from water.


The effective size for rapid filters is usually greater than mm with a Uniformity Coefficient of less than Slow sand filters on the other hand, should ideally have an effective size of between – mm, and a Uniformity Coefficient of between – 3, but preferably less than 2.


For small towns and villages where land cost is less. More efficient for bacterial removal and less for turbidity and colour removal. Less efficient for bacterial removal and more efficient for turbidity and colour removal.

 Да мы уже пробовали, - задыхаясь, сказала Сьюзан, пытаясь хоть чем-то помочь шефу.  - Он обесточен. - Вы оба настолько заврались, что в это даже трудно поверить.  - Хейл сильнее сжал горло Сьюзан.  - Если лифт обесточен, я отключу ТРАНСТЕКСТ и восстановлю подачу тока в лифт.

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