File Name: what is american literature and what makes it unique .zip
We hope you enjoy reading these stories there are actually thirty.
- 20 Great American Short Stories
- Defining American Literature Essay
- English Language and Literature: American & British Lit
- Periods of American Literature
University Libraries Carol M. VT Logo. A collection of over 2, poems. It provides a survey of African American poetry from the earliest published African American poems to the works of Paul Laurence Dunbar.
20 Great American Short Stories
African-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. It begins with the works of such late 18th-century writers as Phillis Wheatley. Before the high point of slave narratives, African-American literature was dominated by autobiographical spiritual narratives.
The genre known as slave narratives in the 19th century were accounts by people who had generally escaped from slavery, about their journeys to freedom and ways they claimed their lives.
The Harlem Renaissance of the s was a great period of flowering in literature and the arts, influenced both by writers who came North in the Great Migration and those who were immigrants from Jamaica and other Caribbean islands. African-American writers have been recognized by the highest awards, including the Nobel Prize given to Toni Morrison in Among the themes and issues explored in this literature are the role of African Americans within the larger American society, African-American culture, racism , slavery , and social equality.
African-American writing has tended to incorporate oral forms, such as spirituals , sermons , gospel music , blues , or rap. As African Americans' place in American society has changed over the centuries, so has the focus of African-American literature. Before the American Civil War , the literature primarily consisted of memoirs by people who had escaped from slavery; the genre of slave narratives included accounts of life under slavery and the path of justice and redemption to freedom.
There was an early distinction between the literature of freed slaves and the literature of free blacks born in the North. Free blacks expressed their oppression in a different narrative form. Free blacks in the North often spoke out against slavery and racial injustices by using the spiritual narrative. The spiritual addressed many of the same themes of slave narratives, but has been largely ignored in current scholarly conversation. At the turn of the 20th century, non-fiction works by authors such as W.
Du Bois and Booker T. Washington debated how to confront racism in the United States. During the Civil Rights Movement , authors such as Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks wrote about issues of racial segregation and black nationalism. In broad terms, African-American literature can be defined as writings by people of African descent living in the United States. It is highly varied.
Raboteau has said, all African-American study "speaks to the deeper meaning of the African-American presence in this nation. This presence has always been a test case of the nation's claims to freedom, democracy, equality, the inclusiveness of all. African-American literature presents experience from an African-American point of view.
In the early Republic, African-American literature represented a way for free blacks to negotiate their identity in an individualized republic. They often tried to exercise their political and social autonomy in the face of resistance from the white public. African-American literature has both been influenced by the great African diasporic heritage  and shaped it in many countries.
It has been created within the larger realm of post-colonial literature , although scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power. African-American oral culture is rich in poetry, including spirituals , gospel music , blues , and rap.
This oral poetry also appears in the African-American tradition of Christian sermons , which make use of deliberate repetition, cadence, and alliteration. African-American literature—especially written poetry, but also prose—has a strong tradition of incorporating all of these forms of oral poetry. Some scholars resist using Western literary theory to analyze African-American literature.
African-American history predates the emergence of the United States as an independent country, and African-American literature has similarly deep roots. Terry wrote the ballad in after an Indian attack on Deerfield, Massachusetts. She was enslaved in Deerfield at the time of the attack, when many residents were killed and more than , mostly women and children, were taken on a forced march overland to Montreal.
Some were later ransomed and redeemed by their families or community; others were adopted by Mohawk families, and some girls joined a French religious order.
The poet Phillis Wheatley c. Wheatley was not only the first African American to publish a book, but the first to achieve an international reputation as a writer. Born in Senegal , Wheatley was captured and sold into slavery at the age of seven. Brought to Massachusetts, she was owned by a Boston merchant. By the time she was 16, she had mastered her new language of English. Her poetry was praised by many of the leading figures of the American Revolution , including George Washington , who thanked her for a poem written in his honor.
Some whites found it hard to believe that a Black woman could write such refined poetry. Wheatley had to defend herself in court to prove that she had written her own work. Some critics cite Wheatley's successful defense as the first recognition of African-American literature. Another early African-American author was Jupiter Hammon —? Hammon, considered the first published Black writer in America, published his poem "An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries" as a broadside in early In he wrote an ode to Phillis Wheatley, in which he discussed their shared humanity and common bonds.
Writing at the age of 76 after a lifetime of slavery, Hammon said: "If we should ever get to Heaven, we shall find nobody to reproach us for being black, or for being slaves. In the 19th century, his speech was later reprinted by several abolitionist groups. It is the first known fiction by an African American, but as it was written in French and published in a French journal, it had apparently no influence on later American literature.
Brown, on the other hand, was a prominent abolitionist , lecturer, novelist, playwright, and historian. Born into slavery in Kentucky, he was working on riverboats based in St. Louis, Missouri , when he escaped to Ohio. He began to work for abolitionist causes, making his way to Buffalo, New York , and later Boston, Massachusetts.
He was a prolific writer, beginning with an account of his escape to freedom and experience under slavery. Brown wrote Clotel; or, The President's Daughter , considered to be the first novel written by an African American. It was based on the persistent rumor that president Thomas Jefferson had fathered a mixed-race daughter with his slave Sally Hemings. In the late 20th century, DNA testing affirmed for most historians that Jefferson was the father of six children with Hemings; four survived to adulthood and he gave all their freedom.
The novel was first published in England, where Brown was living for several years. Frank J. It was the first African-American fiction to portray passing , that is, a mixed-race person deciding to identify as white rather than black. It also explored northern racism, in the context of a brutally realistic race riot closely resembling the Philadelphia race riots of and It expressed the difficulties of lives of northern free Blacks.
He labeled the work fiction and argued that it may be the first novel published by an African American. Our Nig is a counter-narrative to the forms of the sentimental novel and mother-centered novel of the 19th century.
Crafts was a fugitive slave from Murfreesboro, North Carolina. If her work was written in , it would be the first African-American novel written in the United States. The novel was published in with an introduction by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. The work was never published during Crafts' lifetime. Some suggest that she did not have entry into the publishing world.
There is some evidence that she read in the library of her master and was influenced by those works: the narrative was serialized and bears resemblances to Charles Dickens ' style. A genre of African-American literature that developed in the middle of the 19th century is the slave narrative, accounts written by fugitive slaves about their lives in the South and, often, after escaping to freedom.
They wanted to describe the cruelties of life under slavery, as well as the persistent humanity of the slaves as persons. At the time, the controversy over slavery led to impassioned literature on both sides of the issue, with novels such as Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe's representing the abolitionist view of the evils of slavery.
Southern white writers produced the " Anti-Tom " novels in response, purporting to truly describe life under slavery, as well as the more severe cruelties suffered by free labor in the North. The slave narratives were integral to African-American literature. Some 6, former slaves from North America and the Caribbean wrote accounts of their lives, with about of these published as separate books or pamphlets.
Many of them are now recognized as the most literary of all 19th-century writings by African Americans, with two of the best-known being Frederick Douglass 's autobiography and Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs Jacobs — was born a slave in Edenton, North Carolina and was the first woman to author a slave narrative in the United States.
Although her narrative Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl was written under the pseudonym "Linda Brent", the autobiography can be traced through a series of letters from Jacobs to various friends and advisors, most importantly to Lydia Maria Child , the eventual editor of incidents.
The narrative details Jacobs' struggle for freedom, not only for herself but for her two children. Jacobs' narrative occupies an important place in the history of African-American literature as it discloses through her firsthand example the specific injustices that black women suffered under slavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe was asked to write a foreword for Jacob's book, but refused. Frederick Douglass c. He eventually became the most prominent African American of his time and one of the most influential lecturers and authors in American history.
Born into slavery in Maryland, Douglass eventually escaped and worked for numerous abolitionist causes. He also edited a number of newspapers. Douglass' best-known work is his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave , which was published in At the time some critics attacked the book, not believing that a black man could have written such an eloquent work.
Despite this, the book was an immediate bestseller. In addition to serving in a number of political posts during his life, he also wrote numerous influential articles and essays. Early African-American spiritual autobiographies were published in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William L. Andrews argues that these early narratives "gave the twin themes of the Afro-American 'pregeneric myth'—knowledge and freedom—their earliest narrative form". These spiritual narratives have often been left out of the study of African-American literature because some scholars have deemed them historical or sociological documents, despite their importance to understanding African-American literature as a whole.
African-American women who wrote spiritual narratives had to negotiate the precarious positions of being black and women in early America. Women claimed their authority to preach and write spiritual narratives by citing the Epistle of James , often calling themselves "doers of the word".
Women who wrote these narratives had a clear knowledge of literary genres and biblical narratives. Zilpha Elaw was born in in America to free parents.
Defining American Literature Essay
American literature , the body of written works produced in the English language in the United States. Literature has existed in the Americas for as long as the people who lived there have been telling stories. Native American cultures have a rich history of oral literature. Mayan books from as far back as the 5th century are known, and it is believed that the Maya started writing things down centuries before that. As a specific discipline viewed through the lens of European literature, American literature began in the early 17th century with the arrival of English-speaking Europeans in what would become the United States. Notable authors of American literature include: John Smith , who wrote some of its earliest works; Phillis Wheatley , who wrote the first African American book; Edgar Allan Poe , a standout of the Romantic era; Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , a celebrated poet; Emily Dickinson , a woman who wrote poetry at a time when the field was largely dominated by men; Mark Twain , a master of humour and realism; Ernest Hemingway , a novelist who articulated the disillusionment of the Lost Generation ; and Toni Morrison , a writer who centred her works on the black experience and received a Nobel Prize in
Find out what makes American literature so special and revered, and learn the terms This meant writing that relied on uniquely American themes, avoiding the slavish During the Depression, he worked as a manual laborer in Vancouver.
English Language and Literature: American & British Lit
The history of American literature stretches across more than years. It can be divided into five major periods, each of which has unique characteristics, notable authors, and representative works. The first European settlers of North America wrote about their experiences starting in the s. This was the earliest American literature: practical, straightforward, often derivative of literature in Great Britain, and focused on the future. In its earliest days, during the s, American literature consisted mostly of practical nonfiction written by British settlers who populated the colonies that would become the United States.
American literature refers to the body of written or literary works shaped in the history of the United States and its former colonies britannica. However, American literature is now considered a separate course and institution because of its one of a kind American characteristics and the production of its literature. This paper aims to present an extended definition on the meaning of the term American Literature. The paper will discuss the background of American Literature and how it has came about, the writing style of American authors and what makes the American text different and unique from other national literatures and lastly the paper will present arguments which explore the concept of American literature. Before Columbus and other European colonizers discovered the Americans, the native peoples of the continent have no written alphabet but they expressed their artistic talents and passed on knowledge of their traditions in the form of chants, songs and spoken narratives.
The similarities and differences between English literature and American literature continues to be a subject of continuous debate. Aside from historical differences, English literature and American literature differ in style, grammar, and language. National literature is connected with national history.
Periods of American Literature
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Contributors make important interventions into multiculturalism in North America and into U. Mita Banerjee, University of Mainz, Germany. Georgiana Banita, University of Bamberg, Germany. Julia Breitbach, University of Konstanz, Germany.
African-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. It begins with the works of such late 18th-century writers as Phillis Wheatley. Before the high point of slave narratives, African-American literature was dominated by autobiographical spiritual narratives. The genre known as slave narratives in the 19th century were accounts by people who had generally escaped from slavery, about their journeys to freedom and ways they claimed their lives. The Harlem Renaissance of the s was a great period of flowering in literature and the arts, influenced both by writers who came North in the Great Migration and those who were immigrants from Jamaica and other Caribbean islands. African-American writers have been recognized by the highest awards, including the Nobel Prize given to Toni Morrison in
CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN LITERATURE. GLOSSARY from manual labor, afforded them leisure, and ate, and it gives unique insights into the mentali-.
Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь. Она в ужасе смотрела, как он придавливает ее к полу, стараясь разобрать выражение его глаз. Похоже, в них угадывался страх. Или это ненависть. Они буквально пожирали ее тело. Новая волна паники охватила Сьюзан.
К несчастью, это был самый надежный способ собрать в шифровалке всех сотрудников Отдела обеспечения системной безопасности. После таких экстренных действий на главном коммутаторе раздавался сигнал общей тревоги. Проверку шифровалки службой безопасности Хейл допустить не. Он выбежал из помещения Третьего узла и направился к люку. Чатрукьяна во что бы то ни стало следовало остановить.
Дойдя до конца туннеля, Сьюзан уткнулась в круглую сейфовую дверь с надписью СЕКРЕТНО - огромными буквами. Вздохнув, она просунула руку в углубление с цифровым замком и ввела свой личный код из пяти цифр. Через несколько секунд двенадцатитонная стальная махина начала поворачиваться. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями, но они упрямо возвращали ее к .
ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Как во сне она направилась к главному выходу из шифровалки. Голос Грега Хейла эхом отдавался в ее сознании: Сьюзан, Стратмор меня убьет, коммандер влюблен в. Она подошла к огромному круглому порталу и начала отчаянно нажимать кнопки. Дверь не сдвинулась с места. Она пробовала снова и снова, но массивная плита никак не реагировала.
ГЛАВА 6 Хотя Энсей Танкадо еще не родился, когда шла Вторая мировая война, он тщательно изучал все, что было о ней написано, - особенно о кульминации войны, атомном взрыве, в огне которого сгорело сто тысяч его соотечественников. Хиросима, 6 августа 1945 года, 8. 15 утра.
Он постоял в нерешительности, раздумывая, не следует ли поставить в известность начальника лаборатории безопасности. Да будь они прокляты, эти криптографы. Ничего не понимают в системах безопасности. Присяга, которую Чатрукьян принимал, поступая на службу в АНБ, стала непроизвольно прокручиваться в его голове.
Наверное, я должен был обратить на это внимание, но тот тип показался мне настоящим психом. Беккер нахмурился. Слова Стратмора эхом звучали в его ушах. Мне нужно все, что было у Танкадо при. Все.
- Джабба слушает. - Джабба, это Мидж. Он просиял. - Второй раз за один вечер. Что подумают люди.
Система Сквозь строй должна служить его верным часовым, а Стратмору вздумалось ее обойти. Чатрукьян слышал гулкие удары своего сердца. ТРАНСТЕКСТ заклинило на восемнадцать часовМысль о компьютерном вирусе, проникшем в ТРАНСТЕКСТ и теперь свободно разгуливающем по подвалам АНБ, была непереносима. - Я обязан об этом доложить, - сказал он вслух. В подобной ситуации надо известить только одного человека - старшего администратора систем безопасности АНБ, одышливого, весящего четыреста фунтов компьютерного гуру, придумавшего систему фильтров Сквозь строй.
Соши быстро удалила пробелы, но никакой ясности это не внесло. PFEESESNRETMMFHAIRWEOOIGMEENNRMА ENETSHASDCNSIIAAIEERBRNKFBLELODI Джабба взорвался: - Довольно. Игра закончена. Червь ползет с удвоенной скоростью. У нас осталось всего восемь минут.
- Ты, наверное, не понял. Эти группы из четырех знаков… - Уберите пробелы, - повторил. Сьюзан колебалась недолго, потом кивнула Соши. Соши быстро удалила пробелы, но никакой ясности это не внесло.