File Name: war of independence 1857 causes and effects .zip
Indian Mutiny , also called Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence , widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in — In India it is often called the First War of Independence and other similar names.
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- The Revolt of 1857: Causes, Nature, Importance and Outcomes
- Indian Mutiny
The Revolt of was a prolonged period of armed uprising as well as rebellions in Northern and Central India against British occupation of that part of the subcontinent. Small precursors of brewing discontent involving incidences of arson in cantonment areas began to manifest themselves in January. Later, a large-scale rebellion broke out in May and turned into what may be called a full-fledged war in the affected region.
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It is so, as the one hundred years penetration of the British East India into different parts of India through wars and diplomacy and the introduction of alien revenue, judicial social intervention methods and language of English as the medium of instruction at the school and collegiate level destabilized the existing pre-British socio-cultural fabric.
Added to this destabilization, the ruination of the Indian industries, handicrafts and agriculture led to rural indebtedness and the growth of daily wage earners and de-industrialization, and the rise of a capitalist class of moneylenders, rich landlords and Zamindars as collaborators of the British rule and hegemony created strong resentment against the British.
Further the latest device of the Doctrine of Lapse implemented by Dalhousie dispossessed a group of native rulers and leaders and they joined hands with the rest of the population. No single segment of population welcomed the rule of the British by The peasant and tribal revolts of which we have studied in the previous pages also clearly reveal how the British had to face the opposition of the peasants and the tribal.
The expansionist and annexationist policies of the British power in India made all the Indian rulers, big and small, Hindu and Muslim look with suspicion and develop hatred towards the British power in India. Naturally, this type of reaction is justified as the Indians are the losers and the British gainers.
The native rulers were forced to disband their army who failed to obtain gainful employment elsewhere. Further, the open disrespect exhibited by the British towards the last of the Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah Zafar made the Muslims rise in revolt. There is a view that resentment was brewing since which took a shape in It is difficult to accept the conspiracy theory of the native rulers against the British. The Indians in general did not accept the administrative changes initiated and implemented, as most of them were alien in nature and replaced the age-old existing rules and regulations.
Creation of a new administrative cadre, replacement of Persian by English and the colonial rule which created hardships to all sections of people and lack of personal touch between the ruler and the ruled led to a sort of distrust in the administrative set-up. This distrust hardened in due course as Indians were denied positions in all high civil and military jobs which were reserved for the Europeans and in particular to the British.
Added to political and administrative distrust for the British East India Company, the economic policies of the British resulted in impoverishing all the segments of the Indian society except a handful of collaborators among the Indians. The parliamentary reports of also record that while the British cotton and silk goods imported into India paid a duty of VA per cent and woolen goods 2 per cent, Indian cotton goods exported to Britain paid 10 per cent, silk goods 20 per cent and the woolen goods 30 per cent.
Further, the abolition of the monopoly of trade in of East India Company and the introduction of free trade by increased further the exploitation of the economy of India.
She is a manufacturing country; her manufacturers of various descriptions have existed for ages, and have never been able to be completed by any nation wherever fair play has been given to them. To reduce her now to an agricultural country would be an injustice to India. As a result of the British economic exploitation all classes of people, peasants, landlords, traders, industrialists, labourers and middle class of India were badly affected and it is no exaggeration to state that unlimited poverty enveloped the entire society and made India an underdeveloped country.
Further, the missionary activities of charitable and philanthropic nature were looked with suspicion as the missionaries used to heckle the Hindus for worshipping many gods and goddesses, and their efforts to convert to Christianity many economically and socially backward community people and in their educational institutions they began to openly canvas about Christianity.
All these made the Indians come to the conclusion that their religion was in danger and this suspicion aroused the religious and social sentiment of the Hindus against the British. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan admits that during the famines of , many orphans became Christians. Further, the contents of the letter of Mr. Edmund, a missionary also strengthened the apprehensions of the Hindus. The intervention of the British in social traditions by prohibiting the practice of Sati in , passing laws relating to succession of property in and , Widow Remarriage Act in and the Religious Disabilities Act of further strengthened the view of the conservatives that the Hindu religion and customs were being tampered by the British with the specific objective of Christianizing India.
In a way, partially the outburst of was a revolt of the old against the new, of Indian conservatism against the arrogant British hegemony and Christian indoctrination. The conservation of religion took the shape of rallying point in the revolt which was seen as a war of religion by the sepoys and the masses to some extent but religious grievances were not the total rallying points of the great revolt.
Besides the above political and administrative, economic, social and religious grievances, another major cause was the unrest of the sepoys in the army of the British. We are aware that the action of Mangal Pandey, a sepoy of Barrackpore near Calcutta on 29 March, led to the mutiny of sepoys in the beginning which precipitated the revolt of the people. There was a clash between the service conditions and religious practices of the upper caste sepoys due to the policies of the British.
The army of Vellore mutinied against the British in opposing the replacement of turban by a leather cockade. In , the sepoys of Barrakpore did not agree to proceed to Burma as their custom was against the crossing of the sea which results in the loss of the caste.
In , the Bengal army opposed the decision to go to Sind and wage war for the same reason mentioned above. Annexation of territories by the British also annoyed the sepoys. The general service establishment Act of of the time of Lord Canning was the immediate cause of discontentment as it stipulated that every sepoy must be ready to serve anywhere in India or abroad.
Finally, the suspicion that the greased cartridge which was used in Enfield rifles was filled with the fat of cow and pig made the sepoys to openly rebel by killing a British officer. The event of March 29, of Barrackpore kindled the spirits of other sepoys and by the 11 May, , almost half of the sepoys joined the great revolt. The mutiny of sepoys started at Barackpore on 29 March, spread to Meerut by May , and to Delhi by 12 May, At Delhi, the sepoys selected Bahadur Shah Zafar as their leader and declared him as the emperor of India.
The Punjab and Hyderabad were absolutely peaceful. By July , the revolt was totally crushed but for local risings in certain areas.
In this revolt, human loss on both sides was considerable. All these leaders no doubt were affected by the policies of the British in the last hundred years and had genuine grievance against the British. The factors like localizing of risings, loyalty of the native princes, lack of efficient generals, lack of commonly agreed national level leaders, lack of adequate arms, proven communication system of the British and control of sea by British were ultimately responsible for the failure of the revolt of It also made the British cautious in their approach to the Indian problem.
Definitely the revolt was an eye-opener to the British as well as to the Indians.
project on revolt of 1857 pdf
The War of Independence is an important landmark in the history of Sub-Continent. This War was fought in by Indians against the British in order to get rid of their domination. The main causes of the War were political, social, economical, military and religious. It was an extreme effort made by Indians, but they failed due to certain reasons including mutual jealousies, disunity, and lack of central leadership etc. This war was not spread throughout India but it was limited to few areas mainly Meerut, Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow etc. The main event which became the immediate cause of the war was the refusal of the Sepoys to use the grease covered cartridges greased with fat of pig and cow on January 23,
It is so, as the one hundred years penetration of the British East India into different parts of India through wars and diplomacy and the introduction of alien revenue, judicial social intervention methods and language of English as the medium of instruction at the school and collegiate level destabilized the existing pre-British socio-cultural fabric. Added to this destabilization, the ruination of the Indian industries, handicrafts and agriculture led to rural indebtedness and the growth of daily wage earners and de-industrialization, and the rise of a capitalist class of moneylenders, rich landlords and Zamindars as collaborators of the British rule and hegemony created strong resentment against the British. Further the latest device of the Doctrine of Lapse implemented by Dalhousie dispossessed a group of native rulers and leaders and they joined hands with the rest of the population. No single segment of population welcomed the rule of the British by The peasant and tribal revolts of which we have studied in the previous pages also clearly reveal how the British had to face the opposition of the peasants and the tribal. The expansionist and annexationist policies of the British power in India made all the Indian rulers, big and small, Hindu and Muslim look with suspicion and develop hatred towards the British power in India. Naturally, this type of reaction is justified as the Indians are the losers and the British gainers.
In British faced a serious challenge to their rule in India. This war is called war of Independence. There are many causes for this war which are: like Kashmir who sent troops to support the British win the war. The Effects of the War.
The Revolt of 1857: Causes, Nature, Importance and Outcomes
The cartridges to be used for the Enfield Rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. However, it is important to note that right from the inception of the East India Company there had been resistance from divergent section in different parts of the sub continent. Reply Delete. Read to know more about the Revolt of in this article. Millions of artisans and craftsmen lost their jobs and had no source of income.
There were many causes of the War of Independence of They can be divided into political, religious, military, economic and social causes. The Company also declared that after the death of the then Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, his family had to move out of the Red Fort and his successors were also forbidden to use the title of emperor. All these attempts alienated both Hindu and Muslim Indians who realized that the White men were intending to devour their lands. The people of India at that time were highly concerned about their religion and religious rites.
Factory-certified, reconditioned equipment at unbeatable prices! View Test 23 - Notes. Shepard High School. In course of time, a vast store of explosive material had been collected. Stanley Wolpert. Historians have identified diverse political, economic, military, religious and social causes of the Indian Rebellion of An uprising in several sepoy companies of the Bengal army was sparked by the issue of new gunpowder cartridges for the Enfield rifle in February
Он был уверен, что спрятал все следы, и не имел ни малейшего понятия о том, что Сьюзан были известны его действия. Понятно, почему она не хотела верить ни одному его слову. Он почувствовал, как вокруг него выросла стена, и понял, что ему не удастся выпутаться из этой ситуации, по крайней мере своевременно. И он в отчаянии прошептал ей на ухо: - Сьюзан… Стратмор убил Чатрукьяна. - Отпусти ее, - спокойно сказал Стратмор. - Она тебе все равно не поверит. - Да уж конечно, - огрызнулся Хейл.
Она ускорила шаги, чтобы побыстрее оказаться в кабинете шефа. К рабочему кабинету Стратмора, именуемому аквариумом из-за стеклянных стен, вела узкая лестница, поднимавшаяся по задней стене шифровалки. Взбираясь по решетчатым ступенькам, Сьюзан смотрела на массивную дубовую дверь кабинета, украшенную эмблемой АНБ, на которой был изображен могучий орел, терзающий когтями старинную отмычку. За этой дверью находился один из самых великих людей, которых ей довелось знать. Пятидесятишестилетний коммандер Стратмор, заместитель оперативного директора АНБ, был для нее почти как отец. Именно он принимал ее на работу, именно он сделал АНБ для нее родным домом.
Тот протянул руку, взял Танкадо за запястье, поддерживая остававшуюся на весу руку умирающего. Танкадо посмотрел вверх, на свои пальцы, на кольцо, а затем, умоляюще, - на тучного господина. Это была предсмертная мольба. Энсей Танкадо незаметно кивнул, словно говоря:. И тут же весь обмяк.
У нас столько времени, сколько. Сьюзан отказывалась понимать. Не появится. - Но вы же позвонили… Стратмор позволил себе наконец засмеяться. - Трюк, старый как мир.
- Джабба театральным жестом указал на громадный экран. - Дамы и господа, - он опять тяжело вздохнул, - перед вами компьютерный агрессор-камикадзе… червь. - Червь? - с недоумением переспросил Бринкерхофф. Название показалось ему чересчур земным для такого агрессора.
ГЛАВА 3 Вольво Сьюзан замер в тени высоченного четырехметрового забора с протянутой поверху колючей проволокой. Молодой охранник положил руку на крышу машины. - Пожалуйста, ваше удостоверение. Сьюзан протянула карточку и приготовилась ждать обычные полминуты. Офицер пропустил удостоверение через подключенный к компьютеру сканер, потом наконец взглянул на .
Она не произнесла ни слова. За десять лет их знакомства Стратмор выходил из себя всего несколько раз, и этого ни разу не произошло в разговоре с .
Беккер был уверен, что представляет собой отличную мишень, даже несмотря на то что находился среди огромного множества прихожан: его пиджак цвета хаки ярко выделялся на черном фоне. Вначале он хотел снять его, но белая оксфордская рубашка была бы ничуть ни лучше, поэтому он лишь пригнулся еще ниже. Мужчина рядом нахмурился. - Turista, - усмехнулся. И прошептал чуть насмешливо: - Llamo un medico.
Лицо его все сильнее заливалось краской. - Невероятно! - воскликнул он и снова швырнул трубку. - Шифровалка вот-вот взорвется, а Стратмор не отвечает на звонки. ГЛАВА 98 Халохот выбежал из святилища кардинала Хуэрры на слепящее утреннее солнце. Прикрыв рукой глаза, он выругался и встал возле собора в маленьком дворике, образованном высокой каменной стеной, западной стороной башни Гиральда и забором из кованого железа.
Я сказала. - Я знаю. - Он улыбнулся. - Но на этот раз, - он вытянул левую руку так, чтобы она попала в камеру, и показал золотой ободок на безымянном пальце, - на этот раз у меня есть кольцо. ГЛАВА 116 - Читайте, мистер Беккер! - скомандовал Фонтейн.
Человек, попытавшийся ее удержать, выглядел растерянным и напуганным, такого лица у него она не видела. - Сьюзан, - умоляюще произнес Стратмор, не выпуская ее из рук. - Я все объясню.
Мне очень важно получить ее именно. - Это невозможно, - раздраженно ответила женщина. - Мы очень заняты.
Хорошо, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь сосредоточиться, - я сотру весь накопитель Хейла. И все переформатирую. - Нет! - жестко парировал Стратмор.
Dov'ela plata. Где деньги. Беккер достал из кармана пять ассигнаций по десять тысяч песет и протянул мотоциклисту.
Мы столкнулись с врагами, которые, как мне казалось, никогда не посмеют бросить нам вызов.