File Name: female reproductive system parts and functions .zip
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- Reproductive system
- Everything to Know About Female Reproductive Organs
- Reproductive Tract Anatomy and Physiology of the Cow
The reproductive system is a collection of internal and external organs — in both males and females — that work together for the purpose of procreating, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
Weichert, Charles K. Chang, M. Harper, Michael J. Hunter, R. Last reviewed: May
These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris, and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus.
If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrates and merges with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the process of embryogenesis and morphogenesis.
When developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal vagina. The ova are larger than sperm and have formed by the time an anatomically female infant is born. Approximately every month, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum to be sent down the fallopian tube attached to its ovary in anticipation of fertilization.
If not fertilized, this egg is flushed out of the system through menstruation. Female Repro : Illustrated sagittal view of the female reproductive system. The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, typically found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
Ovaries in females are analogous to testes in males in that both are gonads and endocrine glands. Ovaries secrete both estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is responsible for the appearance of secondary sex characteristics of females at puberty and for the maturation and maintenance of the reproductive organs in their mature functional state. Progesterone functions with estrogen by promoting menstrual cycle changes in the endometrium. The ovaries are located in the lateral wall of each side of the pelvis in a region called the ovarian fossa.
The fossa usually lies beneath the external iliac artery and in front of the ureter and internal iliac artery. In humans, the paired ovaries lie within the pelvic cavity on either side of the uterus, to which they are attached via a fibrous cord called the ovarian ligament. The ovaries are tethered to the body wall via the suspensory ligament of the ovary. The part of the broad ligament of the uterus that covers the ovary is known as the mesovarium.
The ovary is the only organ in the human body which is totally invaginated into the peritonium, making it the only intraperitoneal organ. There are two extremities to the ovary, the tubal extremity and the uterine extremity. The tubal extremity is the end to which the Fallopian tube attaches via the infundibulopelvic ligament.
The uterine extremity points downward and is attached to the uterus via the ovarian ligament. Ovary : A pictorial illustration of the female reproductive system. The ovaries are the site of gamete egg cell, oocyte production. The developing egg cell or oocyte grows within the environment provided by ovarian follicles.
Follicles are composed of different types and number of cells according to their maturation stage, which can be determined by their size. When oocyte maturation is completed, a luteinizing hormone LH surge secreted by the pituitary gland stimulates follicle rupture and oocyte release.
This oocyte development and release process is referred to as ovulation. The follicle remains functional and transforms into a corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone to prepare the uterus for possible embryo implantation. Usually each ovary takes turns releasing eggs each month. However, this alternating egg release is random. When one ovary is absent or dysfunctional, the other ovary will continue to release eggs each month.
Ovaries secrete estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Estrogen is responsible for the secondary sex characteristics of females at puberty. It is also crucial for the maturation and maintenance of the mature and functional reproductive organs.
Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and the mammary glands for lactation. The co-actions of progesterone and estrogen promote menstrual cycle changes in the endometrium. In women, testosterone is important for the development of muscle mass, muscle and bone strength, and for optimal energy level. It also has a role in libido in women. The uterus is the largest and major organ of the female reproductive tract that is the site of fetal growth and is hormonally responsive.
The uterus or womb is a major female hormone -responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the other is connected to one or both fallopian tubes, depending on the species.
It is within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation, usually developing completely in placental mammals such as humans. The uterus consists of a body and a cervix. The cervix protrudes into the vagina.
The uterus is held in position within the pelvis by condensations of endopelvic fascia, which are called ligaments. It is covered by a sheet-like fold of peritoneum, the broad ligament. The uterus is essential in sexual response by directing blood flow to the pelvis and to the external genitalia, including the ovaries, vagina, labia, and clitoris.
The reproductive function of the uterus is to accept a fertilized ovum which passes through the utero-tubal junction from the fallopian tube. It implants into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. Uterus : Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, attaches to a wall of the uterus, creates a placenta, and develops into a fetus gestates until childbirth.
Due to anatomical barriers such as the pelvis, the uterus is pushed partially into the abdomen due to its expansion during pregnancy. Even during pregnancy, the mass of a human uterus amounts to only about a kilogram 2. The uterus is located inside the pelvis immediately dorsal and usually somewhat rostral to the urinary bladder and ventral to the rectum. The human uterus is pear-shaped and about three inches 7. The uterus can be divided anatomically into four segments: The fundus, corpus, cervix and the internal os.
The uterus is in the middle of the pelvic cavity in frontal plane due to ligamentum latum uteri. The fundus does not surpass the linea terminalis. The fundus of the uterus is the top, rounded portion, opposite from the cervix. The vaginal part of the cervix does not extend below interspinal line. The uterus is mobile and moves under the pressure of the full bladder or full rectum anteriorly, whereas if both are full it moves upwards.
Increased intra-abdominal pressure pushes it downwards. The mobility is conferred to it by musculo-fibrous apparatus that consists of a suspensory and sustentacular part. A pelvic examination by a doctor can determine if a uterus is tipped. The lining of the uterine cavity is called the endometrium. It consists of the functional endometrium and the basal endometrium from which the former arises.
In all placental mammals, including humans, the endometrium builds a lining periodically which is shed or reabsorbed if no pregnancy occurs. Depending on the species and attributes of physical and psychological health, weight, environmental factors of circadian rhythm, photoperiodism the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night , the effect of menstrual cycles to the reproductive function of the uterus is subject to hormone production, cell regeneration, and other biological activities.
The menstrual cycles may vary from a few days to six months, but can vary widely even in the same individual, often stopping for several cycles before resuming. The uterus mostly consists of smooth muscle, known as myometrium.
The innermost layer of myometrium is known as the junctional zone, which becomes thickened in adenomyosis. The parametrium is the loose connective tissue around the uterus. The perimetrium is the peritoneum covering of the fundus and ventral and dorsal aspects of the uterus. The uterus is primarily supported by the pelvic diaphragm, perineal body, and the urogenital diaphragm. Secondarily, it is supported by ligaments and the peritoneum broad ligament of uterus. The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges singular salpinx , are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus via the uterotubal junction.
In non-mammalian vertebrates, the equivalent structures are the oviducts. These tubes allows passage of the egg from the ovary to the uterus.
The tubal ostium is the point at which the tubal canal meets the peritoneal cavity, while the uterine opening of the Fallopian tube is the entrance into the uterine cavity, the uterotubal junction.
Uterine Segments : Illustrative drawing of the anterior view of the uterus showing the uterine segments. There are two types of cells within the simple columnar epithelium of the Fallopian tube.
Ciliated cells predominate throughout the tube, but are most numerous in the infundibulum and ampulla. Estrogen increases the production of cilia on these cells.
Interspersed between the ciliated cells are peg cells, which contain apical granules and produce the tubular fluid. This fluid contains nutrients for spermatozoa, oocytes, and zygotes.
The secretions also promote capacitation of the sperm by removing glycoproteins and other molecules from the plasma membrane of the sperm. Progesterone increases the number of peg cells, while estrogen increases their height and secretory activity. Tubal fluid flows against the action of the ciliae, toward the fimbrated end.
When an ovum is developing in an ovary, it is encapsulated in a sac known as an ovarian follicle. The egg is caught by the fimbriated end and travels to the ampulla where typically the sperm are met and fertilization occurs. The fertilized ovum, now a zygote, travels towards the uterus aided by the tubal cilia and tubal muscle.
After about five days, the new embryo enters the uterine cavity and implants about a day later. Occasionally, the embryo implants into the Fallopian tube instead of the uterus, creating an ectopic pregnancy. The vagina is the female reproductive tract and has two primary functions: sexual intercourse and childbirth. The vagina, a female sex organ, is a fibromuscular tubular tract that has two main functions: sexual intercourse and childbirth.
Everything to Know About Female Reproductive Organs
The reproductive system of an organism, also known as the genital system , is the biological system made up of all the anatomical organs involved in sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones , and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. These differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness of the offspring. In mammals, the major organs of the reproductive system include the external genitalia penis and vulva as well as a number of internal organs, including the gamete -producing gonads testicles and ovaries. Diseases of the human reproductive system are very common and widespread, particularly communicable sexually transmitted diseases. Most other vertebrates have similar reproductive systems consisting of gonads, ducts, and openings. However, there is a great diversity of physical adaptations as well as reproductive strategies in every group of vertebrates.
These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris, and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrates and merges with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the process of embryogenesis and morphogenesis. When developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal vagina.
Human reproductive system , organ system by which humans reproduce and bear live offspring. Provided all organs are present, normally constructed, and functioning properly, the essential features of human reproduction are 1 liberation of an ovum , or egg , at a specific time in the reproductive cycle, 2 internal fertilization of the ovum by spermatozoa, or sperm cells, 3 transport of the fertilized ovum to the uterus , or womb, 4 implantation of the blastocyst, the early embryo developed from the fertilized ovum, in the wall of the uterus, 5 formation of a placenta and maintenance of the unborn child during the entire period of gestation , 6 birth of the child and expulsion of the placenta, and 7 suckling and care of the child, with an eventual return of the maternal organs to virtually their original state. For this biological process to be carried out, certain organs and structures are required in both the male and the female. The source of the ova the female germ cells is the female ovary ; that of spermatozoa the male germ cells is the testis. In females, the two ovaries are situated in the pelvic cavity; in males, the two testes are enveloped in a sac of skin, the scrotum , lying below and outside the abdomen. Besides producing the germ cells, or gametes , the ovaries and testes are the source of hormones that cause full development of secondary sexual characteristics and also the proper functioning of the reproductive tracts. These tracts comprise the fallopian tubes , the uterus , the vagina , and associated structures in females and the penis , the sperm channels epididymis, ductus deferens , and ejaculatory ducts , and other related structures and glands in males.
Reproductive Tract Anatomy and Physiology of the Cow
The major function of the reproductive system is to ensure survival of the species. Other systems in the body, such as the endocrine and urinary systems, work continuously to maintain homeostasis for survival of the individual. An individual may live a long, healthy, and happy life without producing offspring, but if the species is to continue, at least some individuals must produce offspring. These functions are divided between the primary and secondary, or accessory , reproductive organs. The primary reproductive organs, or gonads, consist of the ovaries and testes.
The female reproductive system functions to produce gametes and reproductive hormones, just like the male reproductive system; however, it also has the additional task of supporting the developing fetus and delivering it to the outside world. Unlike its male counterpart, the female reproductive system is located primarily inside the pelvic cavity Figure Recall that the ovaries are the female gonads. The gamete they produce is called an oocyte.
WebMD's Vagina Anatomy Page provides an image and definition of the vagina and describes its function, parts, and conditions that affect the vagina. Move your head up and down to say yes, or side to side to say no.
ГЛАВА 33 Токуген Нуматака смотрел в окно и ходил по кабинету взад-вперед как зверь в клетке. Человек, с которым он вступил в контакт, Северная Дакота, не звонил. Проклятые американцы. Никакого представления о пунктуальности. Он позвонил бы Северной Дакоте сам, но у него не было номера его телефона.
Беккер как завороженный смотрел на человека, входящего в туалетную комнату. Он показался ему смутно знакомым. - Soy Hulohot, - произнес убийца. - Моя фамилия Халохот.
После этого я сразу перейду к своему терминалу и выключу ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Давайте скорее, - сказала Сьюзан, пытаясь что-нибудь разглядеть сквозь тяжелую стеклянную дверь. Она знала, что, пока ТРАНСТЕКСТ будет продолжать сжирать аварийное питание, она останется запертой в Третьем узле.
Скорее всего идет по его следу пешком. Беккер с трудом вел мотоцикл по крутым изломам улочки. Урчащий мотор шумным эхо отражался от стен, и он понимал, что это с головой выдает его в предутренней тишине квартала Санта-Крус.
Джабба нажал на клавишу. И в следующую секунду все присутствующие поняли, что это было ошибкой. ГЛАВА 119 - Червь набирает скорость! - крикнула Соши, склонившаяся у монитора в задней части комнаты. - Неверный ключ. Все застыли в ужасе.
Похоже, он принадлежал Филу Чатрукьяну. - Ты мне не веришь. Мужчины начали спорить.
Джабба нажал на клавиатуре несколько клавиш, и картинка на экране изменилась. В левом верхнем углу появилось послание Танкадо: ТЕПЕРЬ ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА Правая часть экрана отображала внутренний вид мини-автобуса и сгрудившихся вокруг камеры Беккера и двух агентов. В центре возник нечеткий из-за атмосферных помех кадр, который затем превратился в черно-белую картинку парка. - Трансляция началась, - объявил агент Смит.
Простите. - Проваливай и умри, - повторил немец, приложив левую ладонь к жирному правому локтю, имитируя итальянский жест, символизирующий грязное ругательство. Но Беккер слишком устал, чтобы обращать внимание на оскорбления. Проваливай и умри. Он повернулся к Росио и заговорил с ней по-испански: - Похоже, я злоупотребил вашим гостеприимством.
Может, ему просто показалось.
Найти тихо. Если он почует, что мы идем по его следу, все будет кончено. Теперь Сьюзан точно знала, зачем ее вызвал Стратмор. - Я, кажется, догадалась, - сказала .
Стратмор покачал головой: - Танкадо дал нам шанс. Это совершенно ясно. Тем не менее риск велик: если нас обнаружат, это, в сущности, будет означать, что он своим алгоритмом нас напугал. Нам придется публично признать не только то, что мы имеем ТРАНСТЕКСТ, но и то, что Цифровая крепость неприступна. - Каким временем мы располагаем.
О! - Старик радостно улыбнулся. - Так вы говорите на языке цивилизованного мира. - Да вроде бы, - смущенно проговорил Беккер.